Hawthorne…issue • Dark insights into the human heart • Fueled by guilt • Guilt that goes along with a Puritan conscience • Ancestor—John Hathorne…judge in the Salem Witch Trial…sentences 19 innocent people to death
Hathorne….to…Hawthorne • Nathaniel changed the spelling and pronunciation of his name in order to disassociate himself from his ancestors. • He continued to feel great guilt over what his ancestor did
Dismal chamber • A room on the third floor of his family home where he spent 12 years learning to write fiction.
Distrusted outward signs • All truth is found within the human heart • Concerned with the psychological effects of sin
“The Birthmark” and “Rappaccini’s Daughter” both explore the dark side of nineteenth-century scientific and technological change by means of experiments that go awry
Earthly Pomp • Genius—Roman mythology: a guardian or spirit that watches over each person from birth • Kant—a muse; originality, creativity, art Kant considered genius to be an ability to independently arrive at and understand concepts that would normally have to be taught by another person
pomp--stately orsplendiddisplay;splendor; magnificence “Pomp and Circumstance” song played at grand ceremonies such as graduations and other official ceremonies.
Who are the sons of glory? • Sons of Liberty? Aggressive and sometimes violent group of American colonists pre-Revolutionary War? • Packet • Read “Earthly Pomp”
Challenge… • What intriguing pattern does Hawthorne use to emphasize his sense of pessimism about life?
Indicate the end rhyme pattern • Name for this pattern? • Slant rhyme? • Meter?
Poe…lack of parental affection was his greatest burden • belief that people operate from a dark and irrational place in their minds. Everyone has this place.
His works have been in print since 1827 and include such literary classics as “The Tell-Tale Heart,” “The Raven,” and “The Fall of the House of Usher.” • He is widely acknowledged as the inventor of the modern detective story and an innovator in the science fiction genre
Father of the American detective story Unity of Effect—The work must aim at one predetermined effect (decided ahead of time) A poem or short story should be read in a single setting so that “the affairs of the world are not interposed to distract from the poem’s unity of effect.”
Master of sound techniques: Alliteration Assonance Consonance Onomatopoeia Repetition Rhyme Meter
A life of loss Loss of father Loss of mother No affection or acceptance from foster father Never adopted by foster parents Foster mother lost Mother of class mate lost College experience lost Fiancé lost Wife lost
Poe was born to traveling actors in Boston on January 19, 1809. Edgar was the second of three children. Within three years of Poe’s birth both of his parents had died, and he was taken in by the wealthy tobacco merchant John Allan and his wife Frances Valentine Allanin Richmond, Virginia while Poe’s siblings went to live with other families. Mr. Allan would rear Poe to be a businessman and a Virginia gentleman, but Poe had dreams of being a writer in emulation of his childhood hero the British poet Lord Byron.
In 1826 Poe left Richmond to attend the University of Virginia, where he excelled in his classes while accumulating considerable debt. The miserly Allan had sent Poe to college with less than a third of the money he needed, and Poe soon took up gambling to raise money to pay his expenses. By the end of his first term Poe was so desperately poor that he burned his furniture to keep warm.
Humiliated by his poverty and furious with Allan for not providing enough funds in the first place, Poe returned to Richmond and visited the home of his fiancée Elmira Royster, only to discover that she had become engaged to another man in Poe’s absence.
Two years later he heard that Frances Allan, the only mother he had ever known, was dying of tuberculosis and wanted to see him before she died. By the time Poe returned to Richmond she had already been buried. Poe and Allan briefly reconciled, and Allan helped Poe gain an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point.
While there, Poe was offended to hear that Allan had remarried without telling him or even inviting him to the ceremony. Poe wrote to Allan detailing all the wrongs Allan had committed against him and threatened to get himself expelled from the academy. After only eight months at West Point Poe was thrown out.
Broke and alone, Poe turned to Baltimore, his late father’s home, and called upon relatives in the city. One of Poe’s cousins robbed him in the night, but another relative, Poe’s aunt Maria Clemm, became a new mother to him and welcomed him into her home. Clemm’s daughter Virginia first acted as a courier to carry letters to Poe’s lady loves but soon became the object of his desire. Holla’
While Poe was in Baltimore, John Allan died, leaving Poe out of his will, yet Allan provided for an illegitimate child Allan had never even seen.
The January 1845 publication of “The Raven” made Poe a household name. He was now famous enough to draw large crowds to his lectures, and he was beginning to demand better pay for his work.
At the age of twenty-six, Poe brought Maria and Virginia Clemm to Richmond and married Virginia, who was not yet fourteen. • the winter of 1847 Virginia died at the age of twenty-four; they were married for 11 years.
In Richmond he found his first fiancée Elmira Royster Shelton was now a widow, so began to court her again. • On the way to Philadelphia, Poe stopped in Baltimore and disappeared for five days.
He was found in the bar room of a public house that was being used as a polling place for an election. • Poe died on October 7, 1849 at the age of forty. The exact cause of Poe’s death remains a mystery…
Originally Released: September 24, 1996Patient / Consumer Inquiries: 1-800-492-5538Media Contact: 410-328-8919 • EDGAR ALLAN POE MYSTERY • In an analysis almost 147 years after his death, doctors at the University of Maryland Medical Center believe that writer Edgar Allan Poe may have died as a result of rabies, not from complications of alcoholism. Poe's medical case was reviewed by R. Michael Benitez, M.D., a cardiologist at the University of Maryland Medical Center. His review is published in the September 1996 issue of Maryland Medical Journal.
The Poe case was presented originally to Dr. Benitez as part of a weekly meeting of medical center physicians, called the Clinical Pathologic Conference. It is an exercise in which a complex case is presented without a diagnosis, and physicians discuss how they would determine a patient's condition and course of treatment. Dr. Benitez did not know that the patient in question at this particular conference was Edgar Allan Poe.
Historical accounts of his hospitalization indicate that at first he was delirious with tremors and hallucinations, then he slipped into a coma. He emerged from the coma, was calm and lucid, but then lapsed again into a delirious state, became combative, and required restraint. He died on his fourth day in the hospital.
… the medical records indicate that Poe had abstained from alcohol for six months before his death, and there was no evidence of alcohol use when he was admitted.
"In addition, it is unusual for patients suffering from alcohol withdrawal to become acutely ill, recover for a brief time, and then worsen and die," says Dr. Benitez, who adds that withdrawal from opiates does not produce the same scenario of symptoms as Poe's illness.
Dr. Benitez says in the final stages of rabies, it is common for people to have periods of confusion that come and go, along with wide swings in pulse rate and other body functions, such as respiration and temperature. All of that occurred for Poe... In addition, the median length of survival after the onset of serious symptoms is four days, which is exactly the number of days Poe was hospitalized before his death. • Poe's doctor also wrote that Poe was offered and drank water only with great difficulty. Dr. Benitez says that seems to be a symptom of hydrophobia, a fear of water, which is a classic sign of rabies. • In addition, people can have the infection for up to a year without major symptoms.
Repetition • Love=8 times • Annabel Lee=7 times • In a kingdom by the sea=5 times • Sea=8 times • Others?
Edgar Allan Poe is renowned for his sound techniques. • Emerson called him a “jingle man” because of Poe’s rhyming, meter, and use of other sound techniques. • For example: