1. Which aboriginal groups lived in Western Canada? • The Cree, Ojibwa, Dene, Beaver and Slave - Hunters and gatherers • Blackfoot, GrosVentre – Buffalo hunters 2. What was the role of the Cree and Assiniboine in the fur trade? • If Aboriginal people were mentioned at all in older accounts of the fur trade, they were invariably described as having played minor and subordinate roles, and becoming quickly and hopelessly dependent upon European technology and supplies. • both groups were drawn eastward as trappers and hunters.
3. How many aboriginals died to disease as a result of the Europeans? • Approximately 3/5 of the population 4. Who was the first explorer to penetrate deep into Western Canada? La Verendrye 5. Explain how the HBC and NWC differ in their trading techniques. The HBC had set up fur trading posts for the Indians to go to them. The NWC, on the other hand, went directly to the Aboriginals which made things easier for the natives
6. Why was the Cumberland House significant? • It was the first trading post in the interior and it was built in 1774. • 7. How much did Chinese traders pay for sea otter pelts? • 120 dollars
8. What did the Plains Indians refer to the horse as? • “A better dog” • 9. The NWC was formed when by whom? • The original NWC formed in 1779 was a coalition of independent traders of Montreal • 10. Which group of people were recruited to work for the NWC? • NWC was lead by men recruited in Scotland and England. They were apprentices, clerks in fur country learning the trade from bottom up.
11. When was the HBC formed? • 1670 • 12. Explain what is meant by “fur trade settlement pattern”? • Settlements followed the river and lake systems because water was the main means of transportation
13. Scottish settlers came to settle in present-day Manitoba in what year? • 1812 • 14. Who was Thomas Douglas? • He established the Red River Colony in 1811 and brought dozens of families from the highlands of Scotland to transform the land at Red River into a farming colony. He helped poor people.
15. Explain the Pemmican Proclamation. • The banning of the export of pemmican from the area without his permission. • 16. Define Monopoly • Exclusive rights and controls to a specific ownership.
17. Describe the events of the Red River Rebellion 1837 and NW Rebellion 1885. • Red River Rebellion 1871: • The Metis were worried about their newly acquired rights (territorial, administrative, commercial, etc.) and their culture. No measures were taken to appease their fears; negotiations continued as though Rupert's Land was uninhabited. Early in 1871, Louis Riel became the head of an interim government created by the Metis to negotiate conditions for inclusion in the Dominion of Canada. However, the talks were marred by armed confrontations. Furthermore, Riel and his associates executed a prisoner, Thomas Scott. This act was the basis for the Canadian government's refusal to grant unconditional amnesty to the Metis. The Manitoba Act was the basis for the creation of that province, but against all expectations, it did not allow the Metis to keep the benefits for which they had fought. As a result, many moved west in order to preserve their privileges.
Northwest Rebellion 1885: • Colonists continued to arrive in droves and problems multiplied. In 1884, a delegation was dispatched by the Metis to find Riel in the United States, where he had taken refuge, so that he might present the claims of the Metis and those of the Natives of the region. But the Canadian government would not listen to the requests formulated by these groups. The Metis and Native claimants assembled at Batoche, where they captured several prisoners in a bid to get the government's attention. When police officers and volunteers agreed to negotiate, they fired upon the Metis and the Natives. Nine volunteers, three policemen, five Metis and one Native died in the skirmish. Riel was able to convince his people not to pursue the enemy and so they returned to Batoche. It didn't take long for the Canadian government to react. It sent some 5,000 soldiers to confront the Metis and the Natives. After several battles, the Metis and the Natives were forced to surrender. Following a lengthy trial, Louis Riel was sentenced to death. The Metis and Natives had no choice but to drop their claims.
18.Who lead the Metis at the Seven Oaks Massacre? • Cuthbert Grant (June 1, 1816) • 19. What did it mean for Canada when it became a Dominion in 1867? • Canada became more independent, but Britain still controlled foreign affaires and defence.
20. Describe the terms of the Manitoba Act 1970 • 36 260 km squared in size to govern • 567 000 hectors for the use of the Métis. • French and English in governments and courts of the province. • Catholic and Protestant schools would co exists.
21. Treaty 1 and 2 (Lower Fort Gary) • Treaty No. 1 & Treaty No. 2. The first post-Confederation treaty, Treaty One, is concluded in August 1871 and covers Manitoba as it existed then. • Treaty Two is concluded a few weeks later and covers areas needed for expansion and settlement in the west and north of the Province. British Columbia enters Confederation on the understanding that construction of the east-west railway will begin in two years and will be completed in ten.
22. Why were the NWMP formed? • The activities of the American traders had been worrying government officials in eastern Canada for several years. • Not only did these free boosters pose a threat to the local people they also challenged Canadian control of the newly acquired western territory. • Also, they needed policing to prevent war with the natives
23. Why did people from Iceland immigrate to Canada? • 1873 • 24. In what year did Saskatchewan and Alberta become part of Canada? • 1905 • 25. What severely limited the amount of land a farmer could cultivate? (page 379) • Ripened grain was cut with a scythe, raked together into bundles, tied by hand, and thrown into a wagon to be taken to the barn where it was laid out on the floor and beaten with a flail to knock kernels from the chaff. Work was done mainly by hand.
26. During wartime, the government helped the Canadian farmer increase grain production by • The offered new Fordson tractors at a saving to all western farmers in an attempt to increase wheat production for the war effort • 27. What conditions put the western farmer in a precarious position? • Farm machinery was expensive and farmers usually had to borrow money to acquire it
28. Groups of men coming to the west to help with the harvest were called? • Harvesters Excursions • 29. During the Klondike gold rush, a law passed requiring men to lug between ________ kg of provisions on their backs? • Between 450 and 900 kg.
30. How did WW I stimulate the Canadian economy? • Demand for war materiel and food-stuff created an economic boom in Canada • 31. Explain some of the conditions felt by Canadian farmers during the Great Depression. • World Grain prices fell • Faced foreclosure • Insect invasions (locusts and grasshoppers) • Drought • No money
32. In 1933, _____ % of Canadians were out of work • 25% of wage earners • 33. Government programs put in place after the Great Depression to protect Canadians were? • Unemployment Insurance
34. Where did most Métis re-settle following their exodus from Red River? • Saskatchewan • 35. Identify the role of the Canadian women during the World War I • Woman replaced men in business and industry, they also contribute to war effect by raising money, collected clothing and supported families of the dead and wounded. Served as nurses overseas
36. How did the Métis people view themselves? • As a separate and unique peoples. Not french and not aboriginal
37. Louis Riel and Provisional Gov’t • On November 23, Riel proposed the formation of a provisional government to replace the Council of Assiniboia. The official transfer of the land to Canada had been set for December 1, 1869. During this period, Sir John A. Macdonald had postponed payment to the Company because of the disturbances in the Settlement. • On December 1, McDougall, who had not been notified of this, read the proclamation announcing the transfer of the Company's territories to Canada. This hasty gesture was later to cause problems.. From that moment, Riel's Provisional Government became legitimate, for the Company lost all authority as of December 1 and Canada acquired none since it had not paid anything
38. What caused a temporary boom in the Canadian economy during the mid 1920’s? • International markets improved and once again Canadian minerals, grains, and lumber were in demand. • 39. How did the BC government help pay for the Caribou Road? • People had to pay a toll