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Text and Hypertext. Data dan Teknologi Multimedia Sesi 03 Nofriyadi Nurdam. Learning Outcomes. At the end of this session, the students will be able to: Show how to use text and hypertext on multimedia application. Course Outlines. Text Definition Text Technology Font and Faces

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text and hypertext

Text and Hypertext

Data dan Teknologi Multimedia

Sesi 03

Nofriyadi Nurdam

learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes

At the end of this session, the students will be able to:

  • Show how to use text and hypertext on multimedia application.
course outlines
Course Outlines
  • Text Definition
  • Text Technology
  • Font and Faces
  • Font Editing and Design Tools
  • Text Data Files
  • Working with Text
  • Hypertext and Hypermedia
what is text
What is Text

Basic media for many multimedia systems

is used to communicate

thoughts, ideas and facts

in nearly every aspect of our lives

what is text1
What is Text

Multimedia products depends on text for many things:

to explain how the application work

to guide the user in navigating through the application

deliver the information for which the application was designed

text technology
Text Technology
  • Based on creating letters, numbers and special characters.
  • Text elements can be categories into:
    • Alphabet characters : A - Z
    • Numbers : 0 - 9
    • Special characters : Punctuation [. , ; ‘ …] , Sign or Symbols [* & ^ % $ £ ! /\ ~ # @ .…]
    • Also known Character Sets
  • May also include special icon or drawing symbols, mathematical symbols, Greek Letter etc.
typefaces fonts and points
Typefaces, Fonts and Points
  • Typefaces
    • The graphic representations of the alphabet, numbers and special character.
    • Usually vary by type sizes and styles.
  • Fonts
    • Particular size of typefaces
    • Usually vary by type sizes and styles.
    • The sizes are measured in points
      • One point is 1/72” or 0.0138 inc”
    • Measuring distance from the top of a capital letters (e.g. ‘A or P’) to the bottom of a descenders (e.g. ‘y , ‘p’ , ‘q’).
fonts effects
Fonts Effects
  • A numbers of effects that are useful for bringing viewer’s attention to content:
    • Case: UPPER and lower letter
    • Bold, Italic, Underline, superscript or subscript
    • Embossed or Shadow
    • Colours
tracking kerning and leading



Tracking, Kerning and Leading








tracking kerning and leading1
Tracking, Kerning and Leading

Reading Line One

Reading Line One


  • Ascender: an upstroke on a character
  • Descender: the down stroke below the baseline of a character
  • Leading : spacing above and below a font or Line spacing
  • Tracking : spacing between characters
  • Kerning : space between pairs of characters, usually as an overlap for improvement appearance
jaggies and antialiasing
Jaggies and Antialiasing
  • Jaggies are the jagged edges you see when a bitmapped image is resized
  • It is a consequence of the underlying array of pixels from which the image is composed
  • Antialiasing is a technique that can be used to eliminate jagged edges
jaggies and antialiasing1
Jaggies and Antialiasing
  • It substitutes additional pixels in other colours to fool the brain into thinking it is seeing continuous lines
  • The technique is used to blend the font into the background by transitioning the colour from the font colour to background.
  • This technique minimizes the jagged edges making for a smoother overall appearance.
types of fonts
Types of Fonts

Two classes of fonts: Serif or Sans Serif



font editing and design tools
Font Editing and Design Tools


Font Creator

text data files
Text Data Files
  • The common data encoding schemes for text are:
  • Plain text (ASCII) is text in an electronic format that can be read and interpreted by humans
  • Rich text is similar but it also embeds special control characters into the text to provide additional features
  • Hypertext is an advance on rich text which allows the reader to jump to different sections within the document or even jump to a new document
text data files1
Text Data Files

Plain text

This is plain text. It is readable by humans. It can contains numbers (01234) and punctuation (.,#@*&) since it uses the ASCII character set.

Rich text

This is <bold>rich text</bold>.<br><center>It is also readable by humans but contains additional tags which control the presentation of the text.</center>


This is <a href=“http://www.w3c.org/”>hypertext</a>. It uses the rich text format shown above but adds the ability to hyperlink to other documents.<hr><img src=“logo.gif”>

working with text
Working With Text
  • Considerations and guidelines when we are working with text:
    • Be Concise
    • Use the appropriate typefaces and fonts
    • Make it readable
    • Consider type styles and colors
    • Use restraint and be consistent
make it readable
Make It Readable

Can you read me?

Can you read me?

make it readable1
Make It Readable
  • The buzzword being splashed around is Convergence and by it we mean the convergence of multimedia technology with the telecommunications industry.
  • The buzzword being splashed around is Convergence and by it we mean the convergence of multimedia technology with the telecommunications industry.
working with text1
Working With Text
  • Large amounts of text
    • Alternatives? - animation, video, narration.
    • Show a preview and allow user to request more
      • Hyper linking
      • Pop-up messages, scroll bars, drop-down menus
how text can be used effectively
How text can be used effectively
  • Communicating Data
    • Customer names and address
    • Pricing information of products
  • Explaining concepts and ideas
    • A company mission statement
    • A comparison of medical procedures
  • Clarifying other media
    • Labels on button, icons and screens
    • Captions and callouts for graphics
advantages and disadvantages of using texts
Advantages and Disadvantages of using texts
  • Advantages
    • Is relatively inexpensive to produce
    • Present abstract ideas effectively
    • Clarifies other media
    • Provides confidentiality
    • Is easily changed or updated
  • Disadvantages
    • Is less memorable than other visual media
    • Requires more attention from the user than other media
    • Can be cumbersome
hypertext and hypermedia
Hypertext and Hypermedia
  • Hypertext
    • Text based documents with the addition of static data such as images and tables.
    • Cross referencing between sections via a keyword acting as an anchor, linked to another section.
    • Consists of a network of nodes, connected via links that can be visited by the user.
  • Hypermedia
    • Multimedia data types stored in a hypertext networked structure.
    • Each node is a presentation. Users can jump from presentation to presentation.
hypertext definition
Hypertext Definition
  • A link connects two nodes and is normally directed
    • Source node
    • Destination node
    • Normally associated with specific part of source node
      • Anchor
    • Sometimes destination is part of a node
      • Source anchor
      • Destination anchor
  • Most hypertext facilities have a backtrack facility
  • Loops are possible
  • Some hypertext systems give an indication that a link leads to an already visited node
  • Nodes + Links = Hyperdocument
    • Information content
  • Hypertext system
    • Software which lets one read and write hyperdocument
  • Hypertext
    • A hypertext system containing a hyperdocument
hypertext navigation
Hypertext Navigation
  • User should be able to follow links and never encounter information that relies on information you haven’t read
  • Users of a hypertext may become disoriented
    • Easy to get lost
    • Even in small documents, users experience the ‘lost in hyperspace’ phenomenon
  • Navigation of the user through a hyperdocument is influenced by
    • Hyperdocument structure
    • Navigation aids provided by hypertext system
    • Browsing strategy employed by user
hypertext navigation1
Hypertext Navigation

Lost in hyperspace

  • An interesting node may be hard to find again in the future
    • Bookmarks
  • While browsing, you get confused about where you are
    • No directions in hyperspace
    • Fish-eye views
      • Shows only a limited part of a hyperdocument in detail
    • Birds-eye views
      • Detailed maps
      • May be too large to view at one time