Immigration to the US. Colonies. Religious migration to New England- Great Migration in mid 1600s due to religious persecution in England Mainly men and indentured servants migrate to Chesapeake- first women in 1619 Primogeniture
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Colonies Religious migration to New England- Great Migration in mid 1600s due to religious persecution in England Mainly men and indentured servants migrate to Chesapeake- first women in 1619 Primogeniture Some colonies such as Pennsylvania (Holy Experiment) advertise throughout Europe in countries such as Germany, France and the Netherlands
Early/Antebellum America Jean de Crevecouer wrote in “Letters of an American Farmer” that what made America unique was that an American could be any combination of ethnicities (What is an American?) Immigration is primarily from Germany and Ireland Irish experience persecution because they tended to be low income, had low levels of education, many children and were Catholic. (NINA)
Gilded Age/Progressive America Ellis and Angel Island Chinese Exclusion Act Immigration Act of 1875 Immigration Act of 1889 (support Chinese Exclusion Act)- claims US has a duty to protect itself from a threat of another nation Most immigrants live in specific areas in cities due to “restrictive covenants” Immigrants also created organized crime syndicates and political machines to provide jobs and protect themselves
1920s Second Wave Immigrants- mostly from Eastern Europe and Southern Europe Immigration Act of 1917- Red Scare Jones Act of 1917 makes people of Puerto Rico citizens Emergency Quota Act of 1921- limits immigration to 350,000 a year based on nationality Immigration Act of 1924 National Origins Act of 1929- permanent quota system
Post WWII Immigration Smith Act- Alien Registration Act (1940) Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952- Ends all racial restrictions but keeps quotas in place Operation Wetback- 1954 Immigration and Nationality Act-1965- Ends quota system Cuba Adjustment Act (1966)- Cubans who enter illegally can become citizens after two years Refugee Act of 1980- Allows political refugees Immigration and Reform Control Act- creates penalties for those hiring illegal immigrants Most immigrants post WWII are from Latin America- Cesar Chavez