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School Bullying: Three Levels of Prevention / Intervention. Dr. Tommy Turner Dr. Nancy Fox Dr. Jerry Kiser ALCA, November 2006 Mobile, Alabama. DEFINITION.

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school bullying three levels of prevention intervention

School Bullying:Three Levels ofPrevention / Intervention

Dr. Tommy Turner

Dr. Nancy Fox

Dr. Jerry Kiser

ALCA, November 2006

Mobile, Alabama

slide2

DEFINITION

Bullying - A student is being bullied or victimized when he/she is exposed repeatedly over time to negative actions on the part of one or more students.

slide3

Bullying - A special type of peer interaction in which a powerful classmate repeatedly intimidates, exploits, and/or victimizes a weaker classmate.

slide4

Bullying (Three Elements)

1. The bully exhibits behavior directed toward the victim that is designed to hurt, harm or damage the victim physically, emotionally, and/or socially.

2. This behavior occurs when there is an imbalance of power/authority between the bully and victim (physical size, social status).

3. Happens repeatedly over time.

slide5

STATISTICS

5-10% of students repeatedly bully peers

81% males / 72% females report being bullied at least once during their K-12 school years

35-45% of parents with school aged children reported feeling fear for their child’s safety when the child is at school

slide6

WHY PREVENTION / INTERVENTION?

Norway 1982

Three boys commit suicide as a result of severe bullying by peers

______________________________________

Professor Dan Olweus responds to this tragedy by developing / implementing the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program in 1983.

slide7

UNITED STATES

Examples that are similar to what happened in Norway

slide8

JAMES KEARBEY (KANSAS, 1985)

Age 14

Killed 3 students, Principal

Bullied, beaten by the students for several years.

Arrested (Final disposition unknown)

slide9

NATHAN FARIS (MISSOURI, 1987)

Age 12

Killed the classmate who teased him about being fat

Shot / Killed himself

slide10

BARRY LOUKAITIS (WASHINGTON, 1996)

Age 14

Killed 2 students, 1 teacher

One of the students killed had teased him

Life in prison (without parole)

slide11

MICHAEL CARNEAL (KENTUCKY, 1997)

Age 14

Killed 3 students, wounded 5

Michael was small and pudgy, the frequent victim of bullying

Life in prison (without parole)

slide12

LUKE WOODHAM (MISSISSIPPI, 1997)

Age 16

Killed his mother; went to school and killed 2 students, wounded 7

Victim of bullying, stated he could not take it anymore.

Life in prison

“I killed because people like me are mistreated every day - and nobody does anything. I did this to show society “push us and we will push back.”

slide13

ERIC HARRIS / DYLAN KLEBOLD

(COLORADO, 1999)

Age 17 / 18

Columbine High School. Killed 12 students,

1 teacher, wounded 23 students

Did not “fit in.” Influenced by videos / movies

Killed themselves

slide14

BULLYING : FIVE SYSTEMS

1. INDIVIDUAL (STUDENT)

Gender

Intelligence

Temperament / Personality

Personal Values

slide15

2. FAMILY

Family Structure

Size of Family

Socio-Economic Status

Parenting Style

Attitude / Involvement Regarding

Education

Attitude / Involvement In Criminal

Behavior

slide16

3. SCHOOL

Building (Old, New)

Building Maintained

Size of Classrooms

Student – Teacher Ratio

Qualified Teaching Personnel

School / Classroom Rules

Student Supervision

slide17

4. COMMUNITY

Urban, Rural

Socio-Economic Status

Level of Public Services

Level of Crime

slide18

5. CULTURE

Television

Films

Music

Books

Video Games

profiles
Profiles

Bully

Victim

Bully as Victim

Bystander

definition
Someone who deliberately intimidates, threatens, and/or hurts others repetitively over a period of time.

Verbal, written or physical aggression

Physical aggression

Rumor spreading

Teasing

Practical jokes

Exhortation

Definition
the bully
Strong desire to hurt others

Exercise an unjust use of power

Seize a power imbalance

Personally stronger (physically or socially) than the victim(s)

Assemble a group that is stronger than the victim

The Bully…
types of bullies
Extrovert

Outgoing

Aggressive

Expressive

Introvert

Hide

Control

Conform

Types of Bullies
bully profile
Bully Profile…
  • Attention Seeker
  • Usually more popular
  • Less likely to empathize with victim
  • Less likely to understand others’ points of view
bully profile25
Self-important

Often comes from a family that uses harsh discipline

Often have parents that verbally abuse each other

Wants revenge and it doesn’t matter from whom they get revenge

Often jealous of others

Gender – not just boys, girls bully too

Bully Profile…
bully profile26
Enjoys control over others

Establishes a power base by testing response of less powerful members of group; watches how they react when small things happen

Waits to see if the victim will complain. If the victim doesn’t complain and the peer group allows the behavior, the bullying will continue

Bully Profile…
victim profile
Victim Profile
  • Passive Victim
  • Provocative Victim
passive victim
Usually weaker and smaller than bullies, more helpless

Less able to defend themselves

May be different and stands out – appearance, dress, speech, gender, name, ability, etc.

Vulnerable

May lack social skills

May be shy, lonely, or depressed

May be anxious and insecure

May be characterized as over-protected

Often blame themselves and believe the bullying is their fault

Yields easily to bullying

Passive Victim
passive victim reactions
Fear – petrified

Depression

Zombie-like appearance

Wildly-emotional appearance

Escapes

Seeks help

Passive Victim Reactions
provocative victim
Provocative Victim
  • Usually difficult to recognize
  • Annoy others with teasing &

irritating behaviors - don’t know when enough is enough

  • Fight back - but lose in the end
  • May have nasty habits
  • May be fidgety or nervous
  • May be easily aroused emotionally
  • Tend to make others feel they deserve it
  • May be disliked by adults
provocative victim reactions
Provocative Victim Reactions
  • Fights back
    • Physically
    • Verbally
  • Acts cool
  • Distracts
    • Amuses or placates the bully
bully victim profile
Bullied by others

Turns the experience around and bullies someone weaker than themselves

Common Parenting Characteristics

Poor parental warmth

Abusive and inconsistent discipline and monitoring

Neglect

View mothers a relatively powerless

Bully – Victim Profile
bystander profile
Bystander Profile
  • Outsiders - Ignore the bully
  • Assistants - Support the bully
  • Reinforcers – Join in and also bully the victim
  • Defenders - Stick up for the victim
  • Gophers - Get help for the victim
what can be done
What Can Be Done?
  • Three Levels Of Intervention:

1- At the school level

2- At the classroom level

3- At the individual level

The bully

The victim

what doesn t work
“Zero Tolerance” policies

Peer Mediation/Conflict resolution

Group Treatment for Bullies

Simple, Short-term solutions

What DOESN’T Work
school level intervention prevention
School Level Intervention/Prevention
  • Conduct a bullying survey (Stan Davis- http://www.stopbullyingnow.com)
  • In-Service education about behaviors, responses, resources
  • Increased supervision
school level intervention prevention37
School Level Intervention/Prevention
  • Coordination Group: administrator, grade level teachers, counselor, psychologist/nurse, parent/student representatives
  • Regular meetings with parents and school staff
  • Agenda item at PTO/PTA meetings
classroom level
Classroom Level
  • Enlarged curriculum: anger management, conflict resolution, communication, cooperation, friendship, kindness, diversity
  • Class rules: brief & clear (Olweus)
classroom cont
Classroom (cont.)

Rules (cont.)

We will not bully other students.

We will try to help students who are bullied.

We will include students who might be left out.

classroom cont40
Classroom (cont.)
  • Immediate consequences for aggressive behavior/ rewards for inclusive behavior
  • Weekly communication with students to clarify and reiterate/ to enlist them in prevention
  • Communication with parents
individual intervention
Serious private talks with bully/victim

Serious talks with parents

Role playing non-aggressive behaviors

Role playing assertive behavior

Individual Intervention
prevention intervention summary
Comprehensive: system-group-individual

Coordinated: School Adults, parents, students

Clear: clear values/moral stand

Continuing: Not reactionary

Prevention/Intervention Summary