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power point presentation on RAM. Memory. Main memory consists of a number of storage locations, each of which is identified by a unique address. The ability of the CPU to identify each location is known as its addressability.

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    1. power point presentation on RAM

    2. Memory • Main memory consists of a number of storage locations, each of which is identified by a unique address • The ability of the CPU to identify each location is known as its addressability • Each location stores a word i.e. the number of bits that can be processed by the CPU in a single operation. Word length may be typically 16, 24, 32 or as many as 64 bits. • A large word length improves system performance, though may be less efficient on occasions when the full word length is not used

    3. Types of main memory There are two types of main memory, Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM) Random Access Memory (RAM) • holds its data as long as the computer is switched on • All data in RAM is lost when the computer is switched off • Described as being volatile • It is direct access as it can be both written to or read from in any order Its purpose is to temporarily hold programs and data for processing. In modern computers it also holds the operating system

    4. What is RAM • Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage. • Today, it takes the form of  integrated circuits  that allow stored data to be accessed in any order in a constant time, regardless of its physical location and whether it is related to the previous piece of data. • [1] RAM is often associated with volatile types of memory (such as DRAM memory modules), where its stored information is lost if the power is removed. • Many other types of non-volatile memory are RAM as well, including most types of ROM and a type of flash memory called NOR-Flash. • The first RAM modules to come into the market were created in 1951 and were sold until the late 1960s and early 1970s. However, other memory devices (magnetic tapes, disks) can access the storage data in a predetermined order, because mechanical designs only allow this.

    5. What is ROM • ROM (Read Only Memory) is used to store the instructions provided by the • manufacturer, which holds the instructions to check basic hardware interconnecter and • to load operating system from appropriate storage device

    6. Types of RAM • 1. Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) • Contents are constantly refreshed 1000 times per second • Access time 60 – 70 nanoseconds • Note: a nanosecond is one billionth of a second! • 2. Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) • Quicker than DRAM • Access time less than 60 nanoseconds • 3. Direct Ram bus Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRDRAM) • New type of RAM architecture • Access time 20 times faster than DRAM • More expensive

    7. Types of RAM • 4. Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) • Doesn’t need refreshing • Retains contents as long as power applied to the chip • Access time around 10 nanoseconds • Used for cache memory • Also for date and time settings as powered by small battery • 5. Cache memory • Small amount of memory typically 256 or 512 kilobytes • Temporary store for often used instructions • Level 1 cache is built within the CPU (internal) • Level 2 cache may be on chip or nearby (external) • Faster for CPU to access than main memory

    8. Main Memory (DRAM) CPU Cache Memory (SRAM) = Bus connections The operation of cache memory 1. Cache fetches data from next to current addresses in main memory 2. CPU checks to see whether the next instruction it requires is in cache 3. If it is, then the instruction is fetched from the cache – a very fast position 4. If not, the CPU has to fetch next instruction from main memory - a much slower process

    9. Types of RAM

    10. Types of RAM Uses backing storage e.g. hard disk as a temporary Swaps programs and data between the hard-disk

    11. Memory configurations for Intel CPU’s • The elementary unit of memory is a bit. A group of 4 bits is called a nibble and a group of • 8 bits is called a byte. One byte is the minimum space required to store one character. • Other units of memory are: • 1 KB (Kilo Byte) = 210 bytes = 1024 bytes • 1 MB (Mega Byte) = 210 KB = 1024 KB • 1 GB (Giga Byte) = 210 MB = 1024 MB • 1 TB (Tera Byte) = 210 GB = 1024 GB • 1 PB (Peta Byte) = 210 TB = 1024 TB