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Introduction To Computer System

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  1. Introduction To Computer System جامعة أم القرى قسم السنة التحضيريه اعداد: أعضاء هيئة التدريس

  2. Computer Generations • First • Second • Third • Fourth

  3. Computer Generations

  4. The First Transistor (1948)

  5. IBM 360 Computer System

  6. IBM 704 Used discrete transistors

  7. IBM 709 Mainframe Last of the vacuum tube computers, c. 1959

  8. Digital Equipment Corp Left: DEC PDP-8, c. 1965 Right: DEC PDP-11, c. 1970

  9. Computer What is the Computer ? The Computer is a set of independent physical components and devices (Hardware), which have a specific job to do for each one and working together by Software to make up the computer system. Computer perform three main operations:

  10. Computer Classifications (types) • Microcomputer • Minicomputer • Mainframe • Supercomputer

  11. Microcomputer • Users: One • Speed: Slow • Price: $500 - $3,000 • Size: desktop or smaller • Examples: IBM PC, Apple ][, Apple Macintosh, Imac • “personal computers”

  12. Minicomputer • Users: 2 - 50 • Speed: Faster • Price: $10,000 - $250,000 • Size: file cabinet • Examples: HP 9000 DEC VAX • “departmental computers”

  13. Mainframe Computer • Users: 50 + • Speed: Fast • Price: $500,000 - millions • Size: refrigerator-sized on up • Examples: IBM 3090, Unisys 2200 • company-wide (“enterprise”)

  14. Supercomputer • Users: a few • Speed: very, very fast • Price: $ millions • Size: room • Examples: Cray, Fujitsu • scientific uses

  15. Look inside the computer SOFTWARE HARDWARE

  16. Computersare made of • HARDWARE • SOFTWARE

  17. Hardware

  18. Hardware The parts of computer itself (tangible objects ) including : • CPU (or Processor) and Primary memory (or Main Memory) • Input devices i.e the keyboard and mouse • Output devices • Storage devices

  19. The Case (System Unit or System Cabinet)

  20. Hardware • Central Processing Unit (CPU) • Input units • Output units • Memory (Main or Primary Memory & Secondary or Auxiliary Memory)

  21. Components of a Computer System Central Processing Unit (CPU) Data control unit (CU) Memory output units Arithmetic logic Unit (ALU) RAM Input units ROM Auxiliary Memory Information/Knowledge

  22. Input Devices ... Hardware Organization CPU memory motherboard hard drive

  23. Input Devices • Translate data from form that humans understand to one that the computer can work with • Most common are keyboard and mouse

  24. Examples of Input Devices 1.Keyboard 2. Mouse 3. Scanner 4. Pre-storage Devise (Disk, CD’s, … etc.) 5. Optical mark recognition (Light Pin , Bar code scanners) 6. Microphone 7. Joystick .

  25. Examples of Input Devices(2) 8. Point and Draw devices 9. Trackball 10. Touchpad 11. Touch screen 12. Magnetic stripes and smart cars. 13. Digital Cameras

  26. Hardware Organization CPU memory hard drive غير مطلوبة فقط للفهم

  27. Mother-Board (or Main Board) غير مطلوبة فقط للفهم غير مطلوبة فقط للفهم CPU RAM ROM

  28. Hardware Organization CPU memory motherboard hard drive غير مطلوبة فقط للفهم

  29. Central Processing Unit (CPU) • A specific chip or the processor • a CPU's performance is determined by the rest of the computers circuitry and chips. • The Central Processing Unit (CPU) performs the actual processing of data • The speed (clock speed) of CPU measured by Hertz (MHz)

  30. The CPU consists of : • Control Unit (CU) • Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU) • Some Registers

  31. Central Processing Unit (CPU) Central Processing Unit (CPU) Control Unit (CU) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Registers

  32. The Control Unit (CU) : coordinates all activities of the computer by: • Determining which operations to perform and in what order to carry them out. • The CU transmits coordinating control signals to other computer components.

  33. The ALU : consists of electronic circuitry to perform: • Arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) • Logical operations (and, or, not, …) and to make some comparisons (less-than, equal, … etc.)

  34. Hardware Organization CPU memory motherboard hard drive غير مطلوبة فقط للفهم

  35. Primary Memory • Memory (fast, expensive, short-term memory): Enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data, programs, and intermediate results. • Two general parts: • RAM • ROM

  36. Main Memory

  37. RAM (Main Memory) • its a primary storage or random access memory (RAM). • it temporarily holds data and programs for use during processing (volatile) • Any information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is turned off. • RAM is the memory that the computer uses to temporarily store the information as it is being processed. The more information being processed the more RAM the computer needs. • RAM consists of locations or cells. Each cell has a unique address which distinguishes it from other cells.

  38. ROM: Read Only Memory ROM is part of memory • Programmed at manufacturing time • Its contents cannot be changed by users • It is a permanent store Q: Mention some examples of ROM? A: (PROM & EPROM )

  39. Other Kind of Memory • PROM: Programmable Read Only Memory. • EPROM: Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory • Cache Memory • Registers: not part of the main memory. Q : Registers are part of “ …… ” ?

  40. Secondary Storage • Stores data and programs permanently: its retained after the power is turned off • Examples • Hard Drive (Hard Disk) • Located outside the CPU, but most often contained in the system cabinet • Floppy Disk • Optical Laser Discs • CD-ROM, CD-RW, and DVD

  41. KindsofDisk Drives

  42. Common Secondary Media • Diskettes • Data represented as magnetic spots on removable flexible plastic disks • Most common size is 3 1/2 inches, in a rigid plastic case • Disk drive holds the diskette, reads or retrieves the data and writes or stores data

  43. Common Secondary Media • Hard drive • Data is represented magnetically as with diskettes • Normally more than one rigid platter in a sealed unit • These disks are not removable • Significantly more capacity and faster operating than diskettes

  44. Optical Laser Discs • CD ROM & DVD’s • Data is represented as pits and lands • Some kinds are read only (CD-ROM) and some Kinds are rewritable (CD-RW) • Significantly more capacity and faster operating thandiskettes DVD: Digital Video Disk

  45. Common Secondary Media

  46. Common Secondary Media • tapes • Panasonic's LS120 3.5 inch diskettes • Iomega's Zip & Jazz disks • VCR tape (Video Cassette Recorder ) • Flash USB disks • MMC (Multi Media Card ) • SD

  47. Hardware Organization CPU memory hard drive غير مطلوبة فقط للفهم Output…

  48. CPU Output Devices • Pieces of equipment that translate the processed informationfrom the CPUinto a form that humans can understand. Processed information

  49. Output Devices • Monitors • Printers • Dot matrix printers • Ink jet printers • Laser printers • Sound Blasters (Sound Card By Creative Lab) • Controlling other devices