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Key Points Chapter Four Shrum and Glisan. Special Methods of Instruction I Summer 2012 GRAD 210 Dr. Bowles, Instructor. Why learn another language early?. Provides increased time for learning opportunity to attain a functional level of proficiency. Optimal Age.

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key points chapter four shrum and glisan

Key Points Chapter FourShrum and Glisan

Special Methods of Instruction I

Summer 2012

GRAD 210

Dr. Bowles, Instructor

why learn another language early
Why learn another language early?
  • Provides
    • increased time for learning
    • opportunity to attain a functional level of proficiency
optimal age
Optimal Age

Critical Period Hypothesis: Lenneberg, 1967

  • Between age 2 and puberty
  • Acquisition is predisposed due to brain malleability and unicameral nature of brain
  • Associative memory is stronger
  • Brain capacity is greater
  • Pronunciation and accent are more native-like
  • Higher level of competence in syntax, morphology, and grammar
optimal age1
Optimal Age
  • Windows of Opportunity Hypothesis: Schacter, 1996
  • Syntax/Grammar:
    • accuracy acquired up to age 15
  • Language Proficiency:
    • Younger learners may reach higher levels of functional proficiency
  • Rate of Language Acquisition:
    • Adults have great advantage, but may be short-lived
  • Enhanced ability to engage in problem solving
  • Earlier reading skills
  • Higher scores on standardized tests and test of basic skills in English and math
  • Positively impact reading comprehension and vocab on standardized tests
  • More openness to other cultures
  • Increased literacy skills including guessing, predicting, hypothesizing, and sharing
  • More positive attitudes to school
  • Increased beliefs in ability to learn another language
  • Greater motivation for learning another language
  • Great self-confidence
the elementary school learner
The Elementary School Learner
  • Preschool (2-4)
    • Absorb languages effortlessly
    • Imitate speech sounds well
    • Self-centered
    • Short attention span
    • Need concrete experiencesand large motor skill activities
    • Benefit from tongue twisters and rhymes
the elementary school learner1
The Elementary School Learner
  • Primary (5-7)
    • Concrete experiences
    • Immediate goals
    • Imaginative stories and dramatic play
    • Learn through oral language
    • Short attention span
    • Need structure and routines
the elementary school learner2
The Elementary School Learner
  • Intermediate students (8-10)
    • Open to people of other cultures
    • Benefit from global emphasis
    • Understand cause and effect
    • Work well in groups
    • Learn well from binary opposites
    • Enjoy peer editing and scoring activities
the elementary school learner3
The Elementary School Learner
  • Early adolescent (11-14)
    • Most dramatic developmental changes
    • Need to assert independence
    • Need to develop own self-image
    • Need to be a part of a peer group
    • Benefit from positive relationships and self-image
    • Like to engage with subjects of interest to themselves
    • Like content-based units
    • Enjoy learning experiences with a strong affective component
key points chapter three the elementary school learner glisan
Key Points Chapter ThreeThe Elementary School Learner Glisan
  • The mythic stage (4-10)
    • Make sense of the world through emotional categories
    • Desire to “feel” about what they are learning
    • Need for unambiguous meaning
program models
Program Models
  • Range from language-focused to content-focused
    • Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES)(traditional term) refers to programs taught 3-5 times per week for 20-60 minutes
    • Foreign Language Exploratory Programs (FLEX) introduces middle schoolers to one or several languages and cultures.
    • Immersion programs teach academic content in the foreign language
program models1
Program Models
  • Sheltered instruction (SI)
    • Making content comprehensible for ELLs
  • SIOP: Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
    • Guides preparation, instruction, and assessment
  • SDAIE: Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English
    • Focuses on content knowledge specific vocabulary
program models2
Program Models
  • Dual-language:
    • Teaches literacy and content in two languages
      • Immersion:
      • Total immersion
      • Two-way immersion
      • Partial immersion
  • Media-based learning:
    • Videotape
    • CDs
    • Computers
  • Distance learning:

Occurs via interactive television

strategies for elementary learners
Strategies for Elementary Learners
  • Plan thematically
    • Makes instruction more comprehensible
    • Focus on use of language to achieve goal
    • Provides a rich context for SBI
    • Offers a natural setting for task-based organization and narrative structure
    • Involves Ss in real language use in a variety of settings
    • Uses complex thinking and sophisticated language use
    • Avoids use of isolated exercises
    • Connects content, language, and culture goals to a “big idea”
content based instruction
Content-based instruction
  • Consider nature of subject-content tasks
  • Consider target language abilities needed
  • Consider language needed
    • Content-obligatory: language needed to teach subject area concepts
    • Content-compatible: language integrated into curriculum
  • Use Cummins’ classification system to support language and content instruction
    • Context embedded or reduced?
    • Cognitively demanding or not?
support for student learning
Support for student learning
  • Graphic organizers:
    • Semantic maps
    • Venn diagrams
  • Vocab acquisition:
    • Binding
    • TPR
  • Reading and Writing
    • Interpretive listening (Oller)
    • Language Experience Approach (presentational)
support for student learning1
Support for student learning
  • Cooperative learning: (interpersonal)
    • Use paired interviews
    • Information gap activities
    • Jigsaw activities
    • Surveys

Give students roles

      • Encourager




support for student learning2
Support for student learning
  • Presentational speaking
    • Skits
    • Role play
    • Songs
  • Learning through culture
    • Products
    • Practices
  • Contextualized performance assessment
    • Suit the characteristics of your learners
    • Assess the abilities appropriate for your learners
    • Allow learners to show their best performance
    • Engage learners intellectually