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AMERICA’S STAKE in IMMIGRATION. Why Almost Everybody Wins. Group Members. Trần Quỳnh Mai. Đỗ Linh Phương. Nguyễn Trung Đức. Trần Quang Ngân. Dương Vạn Nhất. Contents. General View. 1. Immigration & Globalization . 2. Immigration and Complementarities. 3. Other impacts & Summary. 4.

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america s stake in immigration

AMERICA’S STAKE in IMMIGRATION

Why Almost Everybody Wins

group members
Group Members

TrầnQuỳnh Mai

ĐỗLinhPhương

NguyễnTrungĐức

TrầnQuangNgân

DươngVạnNhất

www.themegallery.com

contents
Contents

General View

1

Immigration & Globalization

2

Immigration and Complementarities

3

Other impacts & Summary

4

summary
Summary

Immigrants

Great majority of American workers get benefit

Compete with original labor

 Reduce wages

Or

Immigration laws evolve Int. labor force

 Contribute to future prosperity of America.

www.themegallery.com

immigration and globalization

Immigration and Globalization

Immigration and Globalization
  • 2005, 2.9 percent of the World’s population are Immigrants.
  • 2004, Trade: 27% of global GDP

20% total savings: outside the original Country

Immigration restrictions

Potential output

immigration and globalization6
Immigration and Globalization

Who win

and

who loses ???

  • Differences in Wages:
  • 1870, The U.S. Wage = 2.5 x Ireland Wage
  • 1990, The U.S. Wage = 7 x Mexico Wage
  • Transportation cost: Small fraction of Income
  • Culture and ideology:
  • Languages
  • Attitudes toward social welfare programs
  • The seasonings

Why???

Why not???

slide8

Immigration and Globalization

  • Less Educated Workers:
  • Most restricted
  • Undocumented

Backlash

effect of immigration

Immigration and Complementarities

Effect of immigration

Employment

Wages

Short-term

Wages

Long-term

slide10

When immigration happens…

Native workers

Interactive tasks

New immigrants

Manual tasks

High educated and older immigrants

slide11
Immigrant country

Migrant country

Brain drain

Inflow of funds:

Unilateral transfers

FDI

  • Brain gain
    • Sustain high rates of technological innovation.
    • Number of PhD. Increases
slide13

Immigration and ComplementaritiesThe interaction of wages

Average wage: determined by average labor productivity

  • Foreign worker: less education and no degrees, lack of language and cultural.
  • Native worker: 89% had a high school degree and more.
    • Most of manual labor will be performed by foreign-born labor.
    • Native workers will be able to specialize in language intensive and interactive tasks.

 gain more wages.

 Immigration tool advantage of new job opportunities for native worker

slide14

Immigration didn’t displace native worker doesn’t imply that it didn’t affect their wages.

 Native and foreign-born worker are not perfect substitutes in the labor market.

example on construction industry
EXAMPLE ON CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

Less-educated Immigrant

High-educated Immigrant

VS

VS

Manual Intensive Job

Interactive Intensive Job

High-educated Native

Less-educated Native

example on construction industry16
EXAMPLE ON CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

WORKER

College Degree

High School Degree

Structural Engineers

Managers

Project Leader

Brick Layer

Worker

Supervisor

example on construction industry17
EXAMPLE ON CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

In short term:

  • ImmigrantsINCREASEworker supply

DECREASEwage of manual-intensive Workers

However

  • Cheap LabourINCREASEInvestment (expanding/start up)  Demand for Labor INCREASES(Supervisor, Manager,…)

 Senior Immigrants and Native workers take advantage of the new job opportunities created by newly immigrated workers

case key points
Case key points
  • People migrate due to the differences in wages among countries.
  • International immigration benefits both native workers and the immigrants themselves.
impacts of immigration on economy
Impacts of Immigration on economy
  • New immigrations creates jobs in sufficient numbers to leave employment unharmed, even in the relatively short run
  • The income levels and tax contributions of immigrants increase over time and from generation to generation
  • They do not consider economic contributions such as consumer purchasing power and the formation of businesses, both of which create jobs and provide federal, state, and local governments with additional revenue through sales, income, business, and property taxes
immigrants do not strain the u s healthcare system
Immigrants do not strain the U.S. healthcare system
  • A 2005 study found that "per capita health care expenditures were 55 percent lower for immigrants than for natives in 1998, even after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. On average, immigrants received about $1,139 in health care, compared with $2,546 for native-born residents. Although immigrants comprised 10 percent of the U.S. population in 1998, they accounted for only 8 percent of U.S. health care costs."
immigrants are a net fiscal benefit to the u s economy
Immigrants are a net fiscal benefit to the U.S. economy
  • the average fiscal impact of immigrants…is positive in part because they tend to arrive at young working ages, in part because their descendants are expected to have higher skills and incomes, in part because they pay taxes for some items, such as national defense and interest on the federal debt, for which they do not impose costs, and in part because they will help to pay the public costs of the aging baby-boom generations
immigrants pay more in taxes than they consume in public benefits
Immigrants pay more in taxes than they consume in public benefits
  • The study found that immigrants become net economic contributors after 10 to 15 years in the United States
immigrants are essential to the growth of the u s labor force
Immigrants are essential to the growth of the U.S. labor force
  • The 2005 Economic Report of the President points out that "between 1996 and 2003, when total employment grew by 11 million, 58 percent of the net increase was among foreign-born workers," almost all of whom had arrived since 1995. The immigrant share of employment growth was even higher in particular occupations, amounting in the 1996-2002 period to 86 percent of the 1 million new positions in "precision production, craft, and repair"
immigrants create jobs
Immigrants create jobs
  • Given that 40 percent of the 44.3 million Latinos and 67 percent of the 13.1 million Asians in the United States were foreign-born as of 2006, immigrants account for a large share of the hundreds of billions of dollars in Latino and Asian purchasing power and entrepreneurship.
immigrants do not undermine the wages of most native born workers
Immigrants do not undermine the wages of most native-born workers
  • The White House Council of Economic Advisers concluded in a 2007 report that roughly 90 percent of native-born workers experience wage gains from immigration, which total between $30 billion and $80 billion per year