Gagne’s Nine Significant Events Model EDU 553 – Principles ofInstructional Design Dr. Steve Broskoske This is an audio PowerCast. Make sure your volume is turned up, and press F5 to begin. Click to advance as usual.
Introduction to Robert Gagne • View the video below to gain some background on Gagne and his Nine Significant Events Model. Video on Gagne
Gagne’s Nine Significant Events Model of Instruction • Gain Attention:Focus learners. • Inform Learner of Objectives: Provide an advanced organizer: tell learners what will be learned. Get learners’ brains prepared for learning new material. • Help Learner Recall Prerequisites: Link previous instruction to new learning. Do this as often as necessary.
Gagne’s Nine Significant Events Model of Instruction • Present Stimuli: Present new material to be learned. Teach. • Provide Guidance: Help students learn material through examples and clarification. • Elicit Performance:Exercise student learning in order to improve it. • Provide Feedback: Help students see what is right and wrong and why.
Gagne’s Nine Significant Events Model of Instruction • Assess Performance: Test: determine if students have learned the material and are ready to go on. • Enhance Retention and Transfer: Help students retain material and apply it to new situations. Connect to prior and future learning.
Ways to AddressThe Nine Events In Instruction • Gain attention. • Create a sense of curiosity. • Pose a problem. • Introduce a novel concept or viewpoint. • Use an attention-getting device. • Inform learner of objectives. • State the objectives in written and/or verbal form. • Graphically/visually illustrate the objectives. • Ask the learner to anticipate objectives. • Create a need for mastering the objectives. Help students prepare for learning.
Ways to AddressThe Nine Events In Instruction • Help learner recall prerequisites. • List the prerequisites, or graphically/visually display them. • Review key vocabulary. • Relate what is to be studied to what has been studied before. Go deep! Prepare students to scaffold learning and build & fortify neural networks.
Ways to AddressThe Nine Events In Instruction • Present stimuli. • Present the new material in a variety of forms. Allow for learner differences. • Provide active learning as much as possible. • Do not cognitively overload the learners(7 ± 2). • Use supplementary materials to make a rich, robust presentation. • Use many examples, illustrations, and non-examples. • Ask questions of students to further engage them in learning.
Ways to AddressThe Nine Events In Instruction • Provide guidance. • Provide illustration of material. • Present an example. • Provide a non-example. • Provide an example of a “fuzzy” situation to help students clarify fuzzy understandings of the material.
Ways to AddressThe Nine Events In Instruction • Elicit performance. • Give students a problem to be solved. • Ask students a question. • For a complex task, ask students to address a portion of the solution. • Provide students drill-and-practice. • Link to a game that will practice the material. Embedded questions are not graded. Instead, provide feedback so students can learn from their responses.
Ways to AddressThe Nine Events In Instruction • Provide feedback. • Use reinforcing, corrective, and remedial feedback. • Provide explanations of how answers were derived, what made one response stronger than another, and common misunderstandings. • Clarify any areas of confusion. • Provide an option to review the instruction before moving forward.
Ways to AddressThe Nine Events In Instruction • Assess performance. • Provide a summative test. • Provide a quiz. • Ask students to record their responses and submit them at the end of training.
Ways to AddressThe Nine Events In Instruction • Enhance retention and transfer. • After giving a test, go over it, explaining how answers were derived, and explain areas of confusion. • Re-teach content not mastered, applying new content to different but related situations. • Distribute practice over time to ensure deeper learning. • Relate future learning to this content where appropriate. • Avoid isolating content. • Allow learner to “discover” related material. • Allow learner to apply learning to new situations. • Provide additional material or resources.
Importance of Gagne • Gagne set the standard for instructional design, both for instructor-led teaching as well as for computer-based learning. • Gagne, along with knowledge of instructional design, may change many aspects of your teaching!