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## Measurement and Scaling

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### Discussion Questions and Topics (4)

### The Development of a Scale to Measure Consumer Discontent

Measurement and Scaling

- Terms to know
- Discussion questions and topics (4)

Measurement and Scaling

- Operational Definitions
- Measuring Constructs
- Types of Scales
- Discussion Questions and Topics (4)
- Development of Scales
- Example: Consumer Discontent

Scale

Operational Definition

- Stating a construct in terms of its dimensions and elements so that it becomes measurable.
- Examples:

Learning

Stress

MEASUREMENT

- Assignment of numbers to the characteristics of objects, people,states, or events according to rules.
- Numbers
- Characteristics of objects, etc.
- Rules

Assessing a Respondent’s Liking of Soft Drinks

With Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Scales

Nominal

Which of the soft drinks in the

following list do you like?

(Check ALL that apply):

___Coke

___Dr. Pepper

___Mountain Dew

___Pepsi

___Seven Up

___Sprite

Ordinal

Rank the soft drinks according to how much you

like each (most preferred drink = 1, and least

preferred drink = 6):

___Coke

___Dr. Pepper

___Mountain Dew

___Pepsi

___Seven Up

___Sprite

Interval

Please indicate how much you like each soft

drink by checking the appropriate position on the

scale: dislike like

a lot dislike like a lot

Coke ____ ____ ____ ___

Dr. Pepper ____ ____ ____ ___

Mountain Dew ____ ____ ____ ___

Pepsi ____ ____ ____ ___

Seven Up ____ ____ ____ ___

Sprite ____ ____ ____ ___

Ratio

Please divide 100 points among these soft drinks

To represent how much you like each:

___Coke

___Dr. Pepper

___Mountain Dew

___Pepsi

___Seven Up

___Sprite

100

Paired Comparison Scale(ordinal)

- The brands to be rated are presented two at a time, so each brand in the category is compared once to every other brand
- Compare Nestle with Milka

Nestle with Eti

Milka with Eti

Likert Summated Rating Form (interval)

neither

strongly agree nor strongly

disagree disagree disagree agree agree

- The bank offers courteous service. ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
- The bank has a convenient location. ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
- The bank has convenient hours. ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
- The bank offers low interest rate loans. ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

Semantic Differential Scaling Form (interval)

Service is discourteous ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ Service is courteous

Location is convenient ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ Location is inconvenient

Hours are convenient ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ Hours are inconvenient

Loan interest rates are high ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ Loan interest rates are low

Contrasting Profiles of Banks A and B (derived from

semantic differential scale)

Service is discourteous ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ Service is courteous

Location is convenient ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ Location is inconvenient

Hours are convenient ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ Hours are inconvenient

Loan interest rates are high ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ Loan interest rates are low

Bank A

Bank B

Comparative Judgement Scale (interval)

- Compared to Signal, Colgate’s whitening power is:
- Much better
- Better
- About the same
- Worse
- Much worse

Please evaluate each quality in terms of how important it is

to you personally by clicking the cursor at the position on the

horizontal line that most reflects your feelings:

not very

important important

Courteous service _______________________________________

Convenient location _______________________________________

Convenient hours _______________________________________

Low interest rate loans _______________________________________

Please divide 100 points among the following bank

services in terms of relatively how important

each is to you:

___Courteous service

___Convenient hours

___Convenient location

___Low interest rates

100

Measurement and Scaling

Terms to know

- Operational definition
- Measurement of constructs
- Scaling types as tools:
- Nominal
- Ordinal
- Interval
- Ratio

What are the sources of variation in measured score?

- True differences
- Stability in individual characteristics
- Transient factors
- Situational Factors
- Variations in administration
- Sampling of items
- Clarity of measurement instrument
- Mechanical factors

Comment and Prove

- If a measure is valid, then it is reliable.
- XO=XT+XS+XR
- XO= Observed Score
- XT= True Score
- XS= Systematic Error
- XS= Random Erro

How doyou infer validity of a measure?

- Indirect Evidence by reliability
- Where XR=0
- Direct evidence by validity
- Where XO=XT
- Domain Sampling Model

Via Reliability

Coefficients

Direct Evidence

Via Validity

Coefficients

Test-retest

Alternate forms

Split half

Coefficient

Predictive validity

Content validity

Construct validity

Convergent validity

Discriminant validity

What is the procedure for scale development?

- Let’s look at Consumer Discontent Scale and identify the steps in developing this scale?

William J. Lundstrom

Lawrence M. Lamont

Journal of Marketing Research, Nov. 1976

Procedure for Scale Development

1. Definition of the construct and development of scale statements

2. Selection of the type of scaling procedure

3. Selection of items for testing of scale properties

4. Reliability testing of scale properties

5. Validation of final scale properties

Step1: Definition of the Construct and Development of Scale Statements

- Comprehensive literature review
- Scope of consumer discontent
- The product strategies of business
- Business communications and information
- Impersonal nature of business & retail institutions
- Socioeconomic and political forces

Definition of the Construct and Development of Scale Statements

Initial Item

Pool

Edited Item

Pool

Preliminary

Form of the

Scale

173 Statements

118 Statements

99 Statements

10 Judges

Scaling Procedure

- Likert-type scales (Summated Ratings)
- Six-point interval scaled from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”
- Total attitude score for each respondent

Item Analysis and Selection

- Assessing an item’s ability to differentiate significantly between subjects
- 99 statements, 309 respondents
- t-test
- Respondents’ summated item scores (highest to lowest)
- Highest 25% and lowest 25% used as criterion groups
- Determining statements showing a statistically significant difference
- 84 items retained for reliability testing

Validity Testing

- Construct Validity
- Internal validity analysis
- Scale homogeneity and consistency
- Correlation of each statement with the total score
- Final version of the scale - 82 items
- External validity analysis
- Whether scale score could distinguish between 'known groups’ of persons holding different attitudes
- Sample: Contended group (100) & discontended group (180)
- z-test - significant difference between two groups

Reliability Testing

- Test Reliability (226 subjects)
- Split-half – internal consistency
- Split-half reliability coefficient (uncorrected) - .96

(Flanagan formula)

- Split-half reliability coefficient (corrected) - .94

(Spearman-Brown prophecy formula)

- Test-retest – temporal accuracy
- Test-retest reliability coefficient - .79

Reliability Testing

- Response Bias Reliability (226 subjects)
- Agreement response scale (Couch & Kenniston)
- Social desirability scale (Crowne & Marlowe)
- Consumer discontent measure is not affected by respondent tendencies to answer in an acquiescent or socially desirable manner

Consumer Discontent Scale

- Scale name and composition
- Name: only one pole of bipolar construct
- Composition: Negative response bias
- Use of the scale
- Self report scale
- Respondent’s total score = sum (or mean) of the scores across statements

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