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Scaling and Attitude Measurement in Travel and Hospitality Research. Research Methodologies CHAPTER 11. Introduction. A primary reason for measuring attitudes is to gain an understanding of the reasons why people behave the way they do. To illustrate, attitude measurement has been used to:

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scaling and attitude measurement in travel and hospitality research

Scaling and Attitude Measurement in Travel and Hospitality Research

Research Methodologies

CHAPTER 11

introduction
Introduction
  • A primary reason for measuring attitudes is to gain an understanding of the reasons why people behave the way they do.
  • To illustrate, attitude measurement has been used to:
    • Shed useful light on the attitudes of tourists toward national parks as vacation destinations
    • Identify the perceptions held by potential visitors various tourist-recreation regions
    • Provide a better understanding of the major vacation orientations that different households assume
    • Determine potential visitors’ perceptions of a country and its regions
attitudes
Attitudes
  • Definition: an enduring predisposition towards a particular object or place constitute the affective component of an attitude
  • Components of an attitude:
    • Cognitive – consists of the individual’s beliefs and knowledge about a particular object, or the manner in which the object is perceived
    • Affective – an individual’s feeling of like or dislike for a particular object or place
    • Behavioral – reflects the action taken or the expressed intent to act with respect to a particular object or place
characteristics of attitude
Characteristics of Attitude
  • Their level of specificity. They can range from being very general or global in nature to being very specific to a particular object, place, or event.
  • How closely the attitudes are linked to a person’s underlying value system
  • The intensity of the attitude, or how strongly the individual feels
the attitude behavior relationship
The Attitude-Behavior Relationship
  • Attitudes are generally good predictors of behavior, but there are factors that exist that can affect the strength of this relationship and they are as follows:
    • The degree of correspondence in the measures of attitude and behavior entities
    • The extent to which behavior is influenced by situational factors
    • The importance an individual places on complying with the norms established by relevant others
    • The relevance or importance of an attitude
    • The manner in which an attitude is formed
    • The degree of confidence associated with an attitude
properties of scale
Properties of Scale
  • Measurement is the assignment of numerals to objects, according to some specified rule
  • The numerals represent a specific kind of scale, and care is required in determining which scale properties are applicable
  • The four major properties of scales are:
    • Nominal – numbers are used to classify objects, people, or characteristics
    • Ordinal – requires objects in one category to be described in relation to those in another category
    • Interval – when the distances between any two numbers on the scale are of known size
    • Ratio – scales that have a zero point as their origin
attitude measurement scales
Attitude Measurement Scales
  • Thurstone Scale – also referred to as the “equal-appearing interval scale”, is designed to obtain a score that will identify a person’s position on a scale reflecting a particular attitude
  • Likert Scale – also referred to as the “summated ratings,” requires respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with a set of statements concerning a particular attitude objective
  • Semantic Differential – consists of a set of bipolar adjectives that can be used to measure respondents attitudes towards organizations, brands, stores, etc.
choosing a scale
Choosing a Scale
  • In deciding on a particular scale, a number of criteria must be considered:
    • The properties of the scale
    • The number of items/statements to be used in the scale
    • The importance of reliability and validity
    • The method of interviewing
  • There are also some technical considerations:
    • Including the extent of category description, treatment of respondent uncertainty or ignorance, balance of favorable and unfavorable categories, and whether comparison judgment id required
constructing a scale
Constructing a Scale
  • There are three basic approaches to constructing a scale:
    • Select a scale that has been previously developed and tested by others
    • Develop a scale by either modifying an existing scale or introducing a new set of items
    • Develop a new scale that is valid
      • It involves eight steps:
        • Specify domain of construct - Collect Data
        • Generate sample of items - Asses reliability
        • Collect data - Asses validity
        • Purify measure Develop norms
alternative approaches to attitude measurement
Alternative Approaches to Attitude Measurement
  • Multidimensional Scaling – where individuals are asked to rate alternatives on the basis of perceived similarity to one another
  • Constant-Sum Scale – which asks respondents to allocate a fixed number of points to each characteristic in proportion to their relative importance
  • Conjoint Analysis – is an indirect approach to assessing attribute importance. It offers a means for addressing limitations. The technique involves the trade-off of alternatives having characteristics that are varied in systematic ways
attitude research and tourism management
Attitude Research and Tourism Management
  • The following illustrate how attitude research can lead to more effective marketing:
    • Identifying consumer benefits
    • Establishing segments and target selection
    • Designing marketing strategies
    • Implementing the marketing mix
conclusion
Conclusion
  • An important aspect of understanding and predicting human behavior is the study of attitudes, that is, the knowledge, feelings, and behavioral components individuals have with respect to some object or activity
  • The attitude measurement in the travel and tourism area has offered and continues to offer considerable potential