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This presentation is all about Sugarcane: its latest varieties, Economies of Scale, Deseases, Research Findings in Pakistan, and Production Technology for small Farmers to maximize their production.

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m irfan arshad credit vo help officer cmp ii govt of punjab agriculture dept
Introduction of new varieties for cane development

By

( M.Irfan Arshad )

Credit & VO Help Officer

CMP-II, Govt. of Punjab, Agriculture Dept.

importance
IMPORTANCE
  • Sugarcane is one of the most important cash crops of Pakistan. Pakistan ranks 5th in cane area and production but 7th in sugar production and 11th in yield per hectare but lowest in sugar recovery among the 12 major sugarcane growing countries of the world. The largest cane producers are Brazil, India, China and Thailand. Pakistan has to compete with these countries in cane yield and sugar recovery to compete in the world market. At present, the country is not even producing cane as much to meet the need of the industry. Total cane requirement of the industry is 68 million tones while total production is 54.87 million tones from which only 40.48 million tones is available for the industry. Thus, 27.52 million tones more cane is required. Hence total cane production should be 82.3 million tones which can not be obtained by increasing the area due to competition with other crops.
slide3
-2-
  • Therefore, increase in cane yield per hectare is the pre-requisite. To full-fill the requirement of cane from the existing 1.02 million hectares, the yield level will have to be improved upto 80 t/ha as against present yield level of 53.10 t/ha. Similarly, for the survival of the industry and remain competitive in the international market at Rs. 18/- per kg sugar rate, the industry will have to produce sugar @ 11.00 % recovery at the existing sugarcane price of Rs. 60/- per 40 kg cane against the present recovery level of 8.69 %. Thus for extra recovery of 2.31% introduction rather multiplication of high sugar varieties is the need of the time for the survival of the industry (Table-1, 2 & 3).
importance of sugarcane crop in punjab
Table-1IMPORTANCE OF SUGARCANE CROP IN PUNJAB

By-Products: Alcohol, Vinegar, Confectioneries, animal feed, poultry feed, Fish feed, chipboard, win-board, hard board and plywood. Tops as fodder for livestock

bagasse and trash as fuel.

Employment:Direct: 40000 people (4000 highly qualified,

16000 semi-skilled & 20000 unskilled) Indirect:0.7 million people

importance of sugarcane crop in pakistan
Table-2IMPORTANCE OF SUGARCANE CROP IN PAKISTAN

By-Products: Alcohol, Vinegar, Confectioneries, animal feed, poultry feed, Fish feed, chipboard, win-board, hard board and plywood. Tops as fodder for livestock

bagasse and trash as fuel.

Employment:Direct: 40000 people (4000 highly qualified,

16000 semi-skilled & 20000 unskilled) Indirect:0.7 million people

present scenario of cane production and sugar recovery in the country
Table-3Present scenario of cane production and sugar recovery in the country
  • Mills total crushing capacity = 68.00 m.t.
  • Total sugarcane production = 54.87 m.t.
  • Percent utilization = 73.78
  • Cane available for crushing = 40.48 m.t.
  • Extra cane requirement = 27.52 m.t.
  • Total cane requirement = 82.39 m.t.
  • Cane area = 1.029 ha
  • Average cane yield required = 80.00 t ha-1
  • Present cane yield = 53.10 t ha-1
  • Extra cane yield required = 26.90 t ha-1
  • Av. sugar recovery required = 11.00 %

@ Rs. 60/- 40 kg cane

  • At present av. sugar recovery = 8.69 %
  • Extra cane recovery required = 2.31 %
over view of cane production and sugar recovery
Over view of cane production and sugar recovery
  • Total area under sugarcane (2006-07) = 1.03 m.ha
  • Total cane production = 54.87 m.t.
  • Total cane crushed = 40.44 m.t.
  • Total sugar made (78 sugar mills) = 3.518 m.t.
  • Sugar recovery % (Pakistan) = 8.70 %
  • (India) = 12.62 %
  • (Florida, USA) = 10.96 %
  • (Mauritius) = 11.05 %
  • (Australia) = 14.50 %
  • (Brazil) = 13.00 %
  • Required sugar recovery in Pakistan = 10.50 %
  • Expected sugar = 4.22 m.t.
  • Actual sugar produced = 3.518 m.t.
  • Extra sugar expected = 0.718 m.t.
  • Value of extra expected sugar = Rs. 17.5 billion
  • Share of each sugar mills (78 sugar mills) = Rs. 224 million
causes of low sugar recovery
CAUSES OF LOW SUGAR RECOVERY
  • Sowing of low sugar varieties
  • Payment on weight basis
  • Supply of staled and un-cleaned cane
  • Late application of fertilizer
  • Application of water before harvesting
  • Un-scheduled supply of cane to the mills.
  • Supply of cane to the mills is not according to the maturity schedule
  • Poor development work by the mills
  • Appointment of un-qualified staff
  • Late planting
  • Supply of diseased and insect infected cane
  • Inefficient processing.
slide10
Variety plays A pivotal role in enhancing cane and sugar yield. The inherent cane yield and sugar recovery potential varies in different sugarcane varieties. However, the yield and recovery potential of a variety can be realized if a variety has a resistance against diseases and insect pests.
  • At present, average sugar recovery varies from 7.82 to 9.09% with average bench mark recovery of 8.5% (ranging from 6.00 to 9.50%). Whereas, varieties are presented with Sugarcane Research Institute, Faisalabad with sugar recovery starting from 12.50 to 15% with an average of 14.50%. But such varieties need more attention to maintain their purity and health. Such varieties may be tested and multiplied with proper care at the mills farms as healthy seed nurseries for supply to the farmers on exchange basis or at subsidized rates. Thus growing of such varieties will help in vertical improvement of cane and sugar yields as area under sugarcane can not be increased due to competition with other crops.
slide11
CANE ANALYSIS REPORT

NATIONAL SUGAR INDUSTRIES FARM, SARGODHA

(Dated 24-11-2000)

LAB. INCHARGE

National Sugar Mills Limited

slide12
CANE ANALYSIS REPORT

PHALIA SUGAR MILLS LIMITED, KARMANWALA

(Cane samples taken from Zonal Variety Trial from

Chak DHAREACAN KALAN) (Dated 18-1-1999)

CHIEF CHEMIST

Phalia Sugar Mills Limited

ashraf sugar mills ashrafabad bahawalpur
ASHRAF SUGAR MILLS, ASHRAFABAD, BAHAWALPUR.

Doc. No. Lab-FR-01

Rev No.__________

SUGARCANE SAMPLES ANALYSIS

Date: November 03, 2007

D.C.C. (Lab.)

Asstt. Lab. I/C

ashraf sugar mills ashrafabad bahawalpur14
ASHRAF SUGAR MILLS, ASHRAFABAD, BAHAWALPUR.

Doc. No. Lab-FR-01

Rev No.__________

SUGARCANE SAMPLES ANALYSIS

Date: November 03, 2007

D.C.C. (Lab.)

Asstt. Lab. I/C

slide16
Sd/-

Manager (Q.C. & Testing)

Sd/-

Officer Laboratory

kamalia sugar mills limited kamalia
KAMALIA SUGAR MILLS LIMITED, KAMALIA

CANE ANALYSIS REPORT

Date = 07-02-2008

kamalia sugar mills limited kamalia18
KAMALIA SUGAR MILLS LIMITED, KAMALIA

CANE ANALYSIS REPORT

Date = 07-02-2008

kamalia sugar mills limited kamalia19
KAMALIA SUGAR MILLS LIMITED, KAMALIA

CANE ANALYSIS REPORT

Date = 07-02-2008

approved sugarcane varieties of s r i fsd during last 10 years
Approved sugarcane varieties of S.R.I., Fsd.During Last 10 Years

*Frost tolerant / resistant varieties

sugarcane varieties in pipeline at s r i fsd
Sugarcane varieties in pipeline at S.R.I., FSD.

*Frost tolerant / resistant varieties

slide22
PERIODIC RECOVERIES OF SOME COMMERCIAL SUGARCANE VARIETIES

CPF-237

CP 77-400

BL-4

HSF-240

BF-162

SPF-234

Co-1148

slide23
Periodic Recovery % Cane of Some Commercial Varieties,

Sugarcane Research Institute, Faisalabad

role of variety for recovery improvement due to different models in some sugar mills of punjab
Role of variety for Recovery Improvement due to different models in some sugar mills of Punjab.
recovery improvement due to reduced non cane of a sugar mill in tamal nadu india
Recovery improvement due to reduced non-cane of a sugar mill in Tamal Nadu, India

A. Cane cost

Source: Proceedings of the International Symposium on sugarcane in China, 2004

causes of low cane yield
CAUSES OF LOW CANE YIELD
  • Improper land preparation.
  • Lack of seed propagation facilities
  • Use of low seed rate
  • Planting time
  • Planting method
  • Inadequate and imbalanced fertilizer use
  • Improper method of fertilizer application
  • Scarcity of irrigation water
  • Weed infestation
  • Plant protection
  • Sowing of unapproved varieties
  • Poor management of ratoon crop
yield potential t ha of sugarcane varieties at abdullah sugar mills limited depalpur 2000 2001
YIELD POTENTIAL (t/ha) OF SUGARCANE VARIETIES AT ABDULLAH SUGAR MILLS LIMITED, DEPALPUR(2000-2001)
sugarcane based inter cropping
SUGARCANE BASED INTER-CROPPING

(Annual Report 1999-2003)

economic return of yield rs ha as affected by various treatments
Economic return of yield (Rs./ha) as affected by various treatments

Stripped cane @ Rs. 40/- per 40 kg = Rs. 1020/- tonne

Total cost of fertilizer NPK (168-112-112) kg per ha. = Rs. 9660/- ha

Press mud cost @ Rs.102/- t (cost of 7.78 tonnes press mud) = Rs. 780/- ha

slide44
FERTILIZER EXPENDITURE SAVING BY INTEGRATED APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL (INORGANIC) AND ORGANIC FERTILIZER (PRESS-MUD)
acquisition of farms by the sugar mills
ACQUISITION OF FARMS BY THE SUGAR MILLS

Each sugar mill should acquire at least 500-1000 acres land to establish model seed farms. The seed of approved and promising sugarcane varieties provided by Sugarcane Research Institutes will be multiplied at model farms for further propagation. At each farm sugarcane experts from research will supervise and demonstrate the latest production technologies.

replacement of low sugar varieties
REPLACEMENT OF LOW SUGAR VARIETIES.

Some unapproved varieties having low recovery like SPF-238, disco and SPSG-79 have occupied a large area in different sugar mills of Punjab. These varieties are more popular among the growers because of better yield potential, good ratooning, quick growth and less input requirements as compared to high recovery varieties. Such unapproved varieties have made their place in cane area because of cane payment on weight basis rather on quality basis. Hence, quality payment system should be introduced.

slide52
iii. Multiplication and distribution of approved high sugar varieties.

Sugar mills should obtain seed from Sugarcane Research Institute, Faisalabad and other stations for multiplication at their farms and some selective progressive grower’s farms. Thereafter, the seed of the varieties like CP 77-400, CP 43-33, HSF-240, HSF-242, CPF-237, SPF-213, CPF-243 and SPF-245 for central and northern Punjab while SPF-234 and HSF-240 for southern Punjab be distributed on large scale to the cane growers regularly. Thus varietal composition in the mills area will be improved.

iv provision of inputs
iv. Provision of inputs.

Seed of high sugar varieties should be given to the growers at subsidized rates against interest free loans or given on exchange basis. Other inputs like fertilizer, insecticides and weedicides should be supplied by mills without interest to the growers. Loan on tube well / turbines should be given interest free which will increase the yield of sugarcane per acre.

v cane and sugar yield gap
V. Cane and sugar yield gap.

The average experimental cane and sugar yields were 38.14% and 51.50% more than the provincial average. Similarly, provincial average cane and sugar yields are also less by 208.52 and 121.50% than experimental highest yields.

pre sowing contracts with growers
Pre-sowing contracts with growers.

To secure the interest of the mills for loan recovery and supply of cane to the mills necessary amendments in Cane Act be made. Loaning should be notified and loany be made responsible to give cane to the respective mill. Other mills should not accept their cane.

vii supply of implements
vii. Supply of implements

Sub soilers and sugarcane ridgers (3 in 1) should be supplied to the growers on loan without interest to sow the crop at proper spacing to control weeds and check lodging.

viii price incentive on quality cane
viii. Price incentive on quality cane

Incentive of Rs. 10/- for each 1% increase in recovery should be given to compensate the growers who plant early maturing and high sugar varieties voluntarily, if price is not fixed on quality basis by the Government. The high sugar and early maturing varieties usually may not be as high yielder and good ratooner as the late maturing ones. Then and only then the low sugar varieties can be replaced with the high sugar varieties.

slide75
-2-

ix. Variety premium

At least Rs. 5/- per 40 kg cane as variety premium be given to the growers as compensation to plant varieties with high sugar contents.

x supply of press mud
-2-x. Supply of press-mud

Filter cake is a rich source of organic matter, micro and macro nutrients. It should be supplied to the growers free of cost as incentive to the growers who plant high sugar varieties.

xi price incentive on quality cane
xi. Price incentive on quality cane

Incentive of Rs. 10/- for each 1% increase in recovery should be given to compensate the growers who plant early maturing and high sugar varieties voluntarily, if price is not fixed on quality basis by the Government. The high sugar and early maturing varieties usually may not be as high yielder and good ratooner as the late maturing ones. Then and only then the low sugar varieties can be replaced with the high sugar varieties.

xii incentive on clean cane
xii. Incentive on clean cane
  • As clean cane gives 1 to 1.7% more recovery, therefore, the clean cane may be given premium.
j k agri farms
J.K. AGRI. FARMS

► NO. OF FARMS 27

► FARMS AREA (Acres) 8,500

► SC AREA 2002 3,467

► YPA (mds) 890

► SEP. 2002 PLANT 3,303

► RATOON 1,767

► FEB. 2003 PLANT 2,930

slide87
MAURITIUS SUGAR INDUSTRY

RESEARCH INSTITUTE

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