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Information Technology Trends

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  1. Information Technology Trends Dr. Merle P. Martin MIS Department CSU Sacramento

  2. Acknowledgements • Dr. Russell Ching (MIS Dept) Source Materiel / Graphics • Edie Schmidt (UMS) - Graphic Design • Prentice Hall Publishing (Permissions) • Martin, Analysis and Design ofBusiness Information Systems, 1995

  3. Agenda • Information as Power • The IT System • IT Trends • IT Issues • Chief Information Officer (CIO)

  4. Information as Power • Collapse of Communism • Information and Totalitarianism • Information and Organizations • Power • Just in case • Information Overload

  5. Relevance • IT is a critical resource • Requires mgmnt decisions • IT people have been making these decisions by default • lack of management awareness • lack of management knowledge • inpenetrable jargon(binary curtain)

  6. The IT System Hardware/Soft-ware Interface TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT COMPUTER USER Connectivity Change Management IT Operations Management Decision Support Database Application Programming Systems Development

  7. Shneiderman’s 10 Plagues • of the Information Age • Who is Ben Shneiderman? • Univ Maryland (College Park) • Computer Science • Human Factors Institute • System Philosopher

  8. The Ten Plagues • Anxiety • “computer shock” • “terminal terror” • “network neurosis” • Alienation • less connected to other people • “Whose voice is that, anyway”

  9. Ten Plagues (cont.) • Information-poor minority • another way for disadvantaged to be more disadvantaged • Impotence of individual • everyone treated the same • no special treatment for exceptions

  10. Ten Plagues (cont.) • Bewildering complexity and speed • Windows 98? • Organizational fragility (SciFi) • Invasion of privacy • Alaskan jury list

  11. Ten Plagues • Unemployment and displacement • clerks / typesetters • VP - mortgage loan decision replaced by Expert System (ES) • Lack of professional responsibility • “Sorry, the computer won’t let me ________.”

  12. Ten Plagues • Deteriorating image of people • “smart machines” • “intelligent terminals” • “expert systems” • “Maybe they’ll keep us as pets.” • Shneiderman’s computer with arms and legs.

  13. Ten Plagues (cont.) What are some of your experiences?

  14. IT Trends • Hardware • Software • Data • Telecommunications • Systems Development • End-users

  15. Hardware Trends • Batch to on-line • Batch is delayed processing • Airport limousine • Monthly billing application • On-line is instantaneous processing • Airport taxi • Airline Reservation System

  16. On-line with Delayed Processing On-line Batch Ticket Credit Card Monthly Statement

  17. Hardware Trends Central to distributed processing • Mainframe to PC • Individual productivity • Centralized to decentralized resource control • Departmental purchases

  18. Software Trends • Large to small system development • Reusable code (packages) • Outsourcing • Prototyping • 3GL to 4GL • concept of the Macro

  19. Concept of the Macro • Computer processes one instruction at a time • CAD PAY • ADD BONUS • STO NEWPAY • Macro is one-to-many • ADD PAY, BONUS, NEWPAY

  20. COBOL OPEN INPUT EMPLOYEE-FILE. READ EMPLOYEE-FILE. PERFORM WHILE NOT EOF IF EMP-ID = SEARCH-KEY DISPLAY EMP-ID " " EMP-FIRST-NAME " " EMP-LAST-NAME " " EMP-YTD-PAY END-IF READ EMPLOYEE-FILE END-PERFORM. SQL SELECT EMP-ID, EMP-FIRST-NAME, EMP-LAST-NAME, EMP-YTD-PAY FROM EMPLOYEE WHERE EMP-ID=1234 Third Vs. Fourth GLs

  21. Data Trends • Centralized to decentralized • mainframe to PC • Keystroke to optical scanning • voice? • Multimedia • voice / animation / video, etc. • Data to information

  22. Telecomm Trends • Link organizations to • customers • Amer Hosp Supply (AHS) • suppliers • Porter Model • LAN to WAN • Internet

  23. Development Trends “Information systems are becoming too complex to develop by conventional means.” John Podlipnik Vice President, American Management Systems

  24. Increasing Complexity • Program Lines of Code • 1970’s - 10,000 • 1980’s - 100,00+ • 1990’s - 1,000,000+ • Type Hardware • 1970’s - Standalone • 1980’s - Networked • 1990’s - Distributed

  25. Increasing Complexity • Type of Data • 1970’s - Text • 1980’s - Graph User Intrface (GUI) • 1990’s - Object-oriented User Interface (OOUI) • Data Organization • 1970’s - Files • 1980’s - Databases • 1990’s - Relational Databases

  26. Increasing Complexity • Software Languages • 1970’s - 3GL • 1980’s - 3GL / 4GL • 1990’s - 3GL / 4GL / Objects • Application of Blaab’s Law

  27. Blaab’s Law “Old technologies persist in the face of new technologies.” • Magnetic tape • Windmill east of Livermore

  28. Issue “Our company is committed to providing each employee with the latest technology.” Anonymous CEO WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT THIS POLICY ?

  29. Increasing Complexity • Standards • 1970’s - None • 1980’s - Some • 1990’s - “Open”

  30. Podlipnik’s Question: “How do we deal with changing: • business environment , • technology landscape AND • increasingly complex systems?”

  31. Podlipnik’s Answer • Advanced user interfaces • user-centered methodologies • Client / server solutions • integration to legacy systems • Object-oriented techniques • Open systems • to address technology evolution

  32. Legacy Systems Client/Server Object Technology

  33. End-user Trends • More knowledgeable users • More demanding of IT • More opportunities for • misuse of IT resources • mischief • computer crime • IT people as communicators

  34. IT Issues Model Society Company IT Dept End-user

  35. End-user IT Issues • Computer Literacy • What is it? • Costs • How do we deliver? • Changing content • Shneiderman plagues • anxiety and alienation • information poor minority

  36. End-user Issues • User development • how much? • power / control / misuse • Safe IT work environment (Ergonomics) • IT humanization • Human Factors • deteriorating image of people

  37. IT Department Issues • Centralize or decentralize IT resources • Interconnectivity • islands of technology • Alignment of IT dept. goals with organization • Organizational level • VP? Report to whom?

  38. Department Issues • Technology transfer • “bewildering complexity and speed” • scouting the future • predicting trends • technology mapping • prototyping / demonstrations • technology implementation

  39. Company IT Issues • Strategic role of IT • Computer crime / security • Reengineering with IT • Business value of IT (e.g, waste) • IT Top-down planning

  40. Company Issues • Organizational fragility • Worst case scenarios • Contingency Management • Electronic Data Systems (EDS) example • Change Management

  41. Societal Issues • Ethics • “professional responsibility” • Individual privacy • Unemployment / displacement • Social responsibility

  42. Chief Information Officer (CIO) • VP for IT Services • Understands business • Technology transfer • Create IT vision • sell it ! • Implement IT infrastructure • chassis for building on

  43. Issue Does your firm have a CIO? • To whom does the CIO report? • Has the CIO created an IT vision? • Does the CIO have a technical or management background? TELL US YOUR EXPERIENCES!

  44. Points to Remember • IT Trends • IT Issues • CIO • Apply to a business organization • Exercises • Research paper