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Protein Synthesis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Protein Synthesis. Help! I broke a nail!. What are nails made of? A protein called keratin How does your body make a new nail to replace the one that broke off? The body needs to make more keratin ( Keratin is a protein. Remember: If it ends in “in” it is a prote in)

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Presentation Transcript
slide3

What are nails made of?

    • A protein called keratin
  • How does your body make a new nail to replace the one that broke off?
    • The body needs to make more keratin

(Keratin is a protein. Remember: If it ends in “in” it is a protein)

  • In order to make anything what things are necessary?
    • Instructions, Materials, workers
slide4

In our bodies the making of new protein (like keratin) is called protein synthesis

  • What serves as the instructions?

DNA in the cell

  • Where do you think the building materials come from?

from food! (protein that you eat is broken down into amino acids, the amino acids are then used to build the needed protein)

  • Who is going to do all the work?

Enzymes (like RNA polymerase) and RNA

so how does it work
So HOW does it work?
  • Your body makes proteins in 2 Parts:
    • Reads, Copies, Edits the Instructions (Transcription)
    • Assembles the protein using amino acids and following the transcript instructions (Translation)
  • To make new keratin to form a new fingernail first you need the instructions
  • Somewhere in the DNA is one region that provides the instructions for making keratin.

What do you call a region of DNA like this that “codes” for something?

-a gene!

part 1 transcription reading copying editing the gene
Part 1: TRANSCRIPTIONReading, Copying, Editing the Gene
  • Where is this happening? Do you remember where DNA is located?
    • In the nucleus, in the form of chromosomes
  • Let’s pretend that this is the gene for keratin:
a closer look
A closer look:

REMEMBER: The DNA code is made up of nucleotides, A, T, C and G A pairs with T

C pairs with G

A T G T G G A G T C A C G GG T G A

T A C A C C T C A G T G C CC A C T

Only one side of the DNA strand is “read”. This side is called the template strand. Let’s say its this one

slide8

Here is the tricky part. DNA cannot leave the nucleus. We need to make a complimentary copy of the gene and carry the copy out of the nucleus.

  • An enzyme called _______________ locates the gene among all of the DNA, opens up the strand and produces a “transcript”, a complimentary strand of the DNA template
  • The transcript is actually made of RNA. It is called an mRNA

RNA POLYMERASE

now you make the transcript
Now you make the transcript:
  • Remember: The transcript is not an identical copy but a complimentary strand. If C is read, G is added to the growing transcript.
  • Remember: Use U instead of T for RNA
slide11

Your mRNA transcript should look like this:

A U G U G G A G U C A C G GG U G A

Before this mRNA leaves the nucleus it is edited. Certain parts of the code are cut out.

The portions removed are called _____________.

The portions that remain are called ____________.

introns

exons

Lets say UGG and AGU are introns.

What would the final mRNA look like?

slide12

Final mRNA:

TRANSCRIPTION IS OVER!

All of this was happening in the nucleus. Now the final mRNA transcript leaves the nucleus and arrives at a ribosome in the cytoplasm for translation.

A U G C A C G GG U G A

slide13
Part 2: TRANSLATIONReading the transcript and assembling the correct amino acids into the protein needed
  • Look at your final mRNA transcript. The code is read 3 nucleotides at a time. This is called a codon. Each codon corresponds to 1 amino acid.
  • tRNAs carry over the correct amino acid and attach them together (form peptide bonds between them)
  • How do you know which amino acids will come together to make the protein?

Use the genetic code!

what amino acids do you get for the codons in this mrna
What amino acids do you get for the codons in this mRNA?

AUG=

CAC=

GGG=

UGA=

METHIONINE

HISTIDINE

GLYCINE

STOP

METHIONINE-HISTIDINE-GLYCINE = KERATIN (JUST AS AN EXAMPLE. The actual protein is much longer)

review
REVIEW

TRANSLATION

  • Starts with the mRNA transcript
  • Happens at a ribosome
  • tRNAs do all the work
  • The final product is a strand of amino acids that fold into the protein!

TRANSCRIPTION

  • Starts with a gene for a particular protein
  • Happens in the nucleus
  • RNA polymerase does all the work
  • The final product is an mRNA transcript
what if the code is changed
What if the code is changed?

Any change in the DNA code is called a mutation.

Sometimes the change still codes for the same amino acid and forms the same protein so there is no noticeable effect.

Other times the change results in the wrong amino acid. The necessary protein will not form. This could result in a disorder of some kind.

keystone practice
keystone practice…
  • Which of the following is arranged from largest to smallest?
  • chromosome, nucleus, gene
  • gene, nucleus, chromosome
  • nucleus, chromosome, gene
  • chromosome, gene, nucleus

C. Nucleus, chromosome, gene

slide20

2. The pathway, DNA mRNA  ribosome tRNA protein, happens in

  • eukaryotes only.
  • all organisms.
  • prokaryotes only.
  • no organisms.

ALL organisms (prokaryotes do not have a nucleus but they have ribosomes)

THIS IS THE CENTRAL DOGMA OF BIOLOGY!

(CORE CONCEPT)

slide21

Assembling a protein.

This is a ribosome

  • 3. Structure 1 aids in the process of protein synthesis by
    • providing the code for assembling a protein.
    • assembling a protein.
    • providing the energy needed for protein synthesis.
    • allowing the movement of substances into the cell for the process of protein synthesis.