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Sleep and sleep disorders. MUDr. Katalin Štěrbová Centrum pro poruchy spánku u dětí Dětská neurologická klinika Fakultní nemocnice v Motole. Sleep physiology Examining sleep disturbances Sleep disorders. Sleep physiology. Sleep occurs periodically and is characterized by

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sleep and sleep disorders

Sleep and sleep disorders

MUDr. Katalin Štěrbová

Centrum pro poruchy spánku u dětí

Dětská neurologická klinika

Fakultní nemocnice v Motole

Sleep physiology

Examining sleep disturbances

Sleep disorders

sleep physiology
Sleep physiology
  • Sleep occurs periodically and is characterized by
    • decreased reactivity to external stimuli
    • decreased motions
    • typical body position
    • typical electrical activity of the brain
  • Sleep is immediately reversible
  • Sleep is an active process resulting from the cooperation of several regulatory centres
  • Wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep are three physiologic functional states
nrem sleep
NREM sleep
  • Body resting, almost no movements
  • Regular heartbeat and respiration, depression of blood pressure
  • Almost no dreams
  • Restorative function
  • 3 stages:
    • NREM I – drowsiness – eyelids closing, head-drop, voices grow away, thoughts dispersing, hypnagogic jerking
    • NREM II – sleep spindles, K komplexes; easy to wake up
    • NREM III – delta sleep, very regular heartbeat and respiration, hard to wake up
  • Muscles relaxed, no movements except sleepwalking
  • Irregular heartbeat and respiration, further depression of blood pressure
  • Decreased thermoregulatory activity, no sweating, no shuddering
  • REM sleep is very active compared to NREM: higher oxygen consumption, higher temperature of the brain, higher cerebral perfusion, EEG resembles wakefulness and drowsiness
  • Muscles relaxed except extraocular and respiratory ones
    • Muscle relaxation in neonates is not fully developed; newborns and small infants often jerk, vocalize, kick out, grimase
  • Awakening somebody from REM might be difficult – outer and inner stimuli can be incorporated into dreams
  • Dreams – their role is not very clear
nrem x rem
The body is resting

The mind is resting

The mind is active, but „disconnected“ from the body

development of sleep
Development of sleep
  • REM (active sleep) appears in the 6.-7. month of pregnancy
  • NREM (quiet sleep) appears a month later
  • In full-term neonates: 50% of sleep is „active“ sleep
  • In preterm babies: 80% of sleep is „active“ sleep
sleep regulation i
Sleep regulation I.
  • Circadian clock in the ncl. suprachiasmaticus thalami control timing of sleep
  • Melatonin is released from the epiphysis in darkness and thus regulates the circadian clock in the hypothalamus
sleep regulation ii
Sleep regulation II.
  • The „circadian clock“ regulates also other circadian rhythms as body temperature, level of cortisol, hunger
  • The inner „clock“ has to bee synchronized with the 24hours cycle – according to light/darkness, food intake, social activities, external temperature and noise
  • Drowsiness and wakefulness varies during the day – drowsiness after lunch is normal, a period of increased alertness before bedtime is physiological
  • Owls and larks
why do we sleep
Why do we sleep?
  • Both body and mind gets restoration during sleep
  • Different theories: mental and physical restoration, energy conservation, memory fixation, cool-down of emotions
  • Extracerebral processes: increased productin of growth hormone and thyreotropin, decreased salivation, decreased motility of bowels
  • Immunity – long-term sleep deprivation has negative effect on immunity
  • If somebody does not sleep one night, he is sleepy the other day and the only way to overcome sleepiness is to sleep
Optimal length of sleep for an adult is 7-8.5 hours
  • After an acute sleep deprivation: NREM III and ½ of REM is compensated
acute sleep deprivation
Acute sleep deprivation
  • Decreased efficiency
  • Decreased ability to learn
  • Instability of mood
  • Increased vulnerability of the – e.g. Increased risk of epileptic seizures
  • Worsened thermoregulation
  • Tremor, ptosis
chronic sleep deprivation
Chronic sleep deprivation
  • Trend of the last century in Western countries
  • Behaviourally induced insufficient sleep
  • Increased day-time sleepiness
  • Decreased efficiency
  • Concentration affected
  • Immune regulation deterioration
  • Increased cardiac events
  • Shorter life-expectancy
  • Increased BMI
sleep problems in the population
Sleep problems in the population
  • We spend about 1/3 of our life sleeping
  • Almost everybody experiences some sleep problem in his life
  • no systematic epidemiological studies
diagnostic procedures
Diagnostic procedures
  • history
  • EEG, sleep EEG, polysomnography, MSLT (Multiple Sleep Latency Test), MWT (Maintenance of Wakefulness Test), actigraphy
  • ENT, paediatrics/internal medicine, gastroenterology, immunology
  • Psychology/psychiatry
  • Brain imaging
  • HLA typization (95% of White patients with narcolepsy/kataplexy have the DQB1*0602 haplotype)
epworths sleepiness scale


How likely are you to doze off or fall asleep in the following situations, in contrast to feeling just tired? This refers to your usual way of life in recent times. Even if you have not done some of these things recently try to work out how they would have affected you. Use the following scale to choose the most appropriate number for each situation:

Epworths sleepiness scale

Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS)

    • Scoring:
    • 4 = Very often, Always
    • 3 = Often, Frequently
    • 2 = Sometimes
    • 1 = Seldom
    • 0 = Never
  • Please answer the following questions as honestly as you can by circling one answer.
  • 1. How often so you fall asleep or get drowsy during class periods?
  • Always Frequently Sometimes Seldom Never
  • 2. How often do you get sleepy or drowsy while doing your homework?
  • Always Frequently Sometimes Seldom Never
  • 3.* Are you usually alert most of the day?
  • Always Frequently Sometimes Seldom Never
  • 4. How often are you ever tired and grumpy during the day?
  • Always Frequently Sometimes Seldom Never
  • 5. How often do you have trouble getting out of bed in the morning?
  • Always Frequently Sometimes Seldom Never
  • 6. How often do you fall back to sleep after being awakened in the morning?
  • Always Frequently Sometimes Seldom Never
  • 7. How often do you need someone to awaken you in the morning?
  • Always Frequently Sometimes Seldom Never
  • 8. How often do you think that you need more sleep?
  • Very Often Often Sometimes Seldom Never
  • * Reverse score this item
    • Abnormal Values: 6th and 7th Grade > 26, 8th Grade >30
international classification of sleep disorders
International Classification of Sleep Disorders

1. Dyssomnias

A. Intrinsic Sleep Disorders

B. Extrinsic Sleep Disorders

C. Circadian-Rhythm Sleep Disorders

2. Parasomnias

A. Arousal disorders

B. Sleep-Wake Transition Disorders

C. Parasomnias Usually Asssociated with REM Sleep

D. Other Parasomnias

3. Sleep Disorders Associated with Other Disorders

A. Associated with Mental Disorders

B. Associated with Neurologic Disorders

C. Associated with Other Medical Problems

4. Proposed Sleep Disorders

source: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2001

insomnia i
Insomnia I.
  • Difficulty with falling asleep (sleep latency >30 min)
  • Frequent arousals (sleep efficiency < 85%)
  • Early wake up (30 minutes earlier than planned)
  • Sleep has poor quality, non-refreshing, pat. has one on these complaints:
    • Fatigue, concentration and memory deficit, mood disturbances, irritability, social discomfort, decrease of energy, motivation, propensity to errors, headache, insomnia anticipation
insomnia ii
Insomnia II.
  • Acute insomnia (stress-related i.)
    • Disturbed sleep is due to an acute stressor
  • Primary (psychophysiologic, learned, conditioned) insomnia
    • a disorder of somatized tension and learned sleep-preventing associations
    • Individulas with P.I. typically react to stress with somatized tension and agitation. The meaning of stressfull events is denied and repressed but manifests itself as increased physiologic arousal (increased musce tension, increased vasoconstriction, ..)
    • Learned sleep-preventing associations
      • exacerbate the state of high somatized tension and directly interfere with sleep
      • consist mainly of marked overconcern with the inability to sleep; a vicious cycle then develops: patients in whom this internal factor (trying too hard to sleep) is a driving force for insomnia often find that they fall asleep easily when not trying to do so (e.g. Watching TV, driving, reading)
insomnie iii
Insomnie III.
  • Paradoxical insomnia (sleep misperception)
  • Idiopathic insomnia (childhood onset i., lifelong i.)
    • often with somnambulism, ADHD
  • Mental illness related insomnia
insomnia iv
Insomnia IV.
  • Associated with neurological or other medical disorder
  • Associated with hypnotic-, alcohol- or stimulant dependence
  • Associated with inadequate sleep hygiene
insomnia therapy
Insomnia - therapy
  • Eliminating causes
  • Non – benzodiazepin hypnotics for short-term (zolpidem)
  • Psychotherapy
    • Cognitive-behavioral therapy
sleep hygiene rules
Sleep Hygiene Rules
  • Avoid drinking coffee, black or green tea, coke or energy drinks late afternoon (4-6hours before going to bed), reduce their consumption also during the day.
  • Avoid eating heavy meals in the evening.
  • Do not deal with problems that make you upset after dinner. Find some nice and calm activity to get rid of stress and get prepared for sleep.
  • A short walk after dinner can improve your sleep. Avoid major physical activity 3-4 hours before bed-time
  • Do not drink alcohol to facilitate falling asleep – alcohol worsens the quality of your sleep
  • Do not smoke before bedtime and during night-time awakenigs
  • Use your bedroom and bed only for sleep and sex – remove TV set from your bedroom, do not eat and do not rest in your bed
  • Go to bed and wake up at the same time every day (– + 15 minutes)
  • Do not spend extra time in your bed lazing, thinking.
  • Decrease noise and light in your bedroom to minimum; room temperature should be 18–20 °C.
insomnia of children
Insomnia of children
  • Sleep-onset association disorder
    • Typically the child falls asleep under certain set of conditions (using a bottle, sucking on a pacifier, nursing, rocking)
    • Return to sleep during night-time waking is difficult unless the conditions associated with sleep onset are re-established
  • Limit-setting sleep disorder
    • The child refuses to go to bed at an appropriate time
    • Asserts requirements verbally or leaving bed (drinking, eating, urination, more fairy- tales)
    • „Curtain-calls“
  • Medical reasons (pain, infant colic, itching)
  • Fear, anxiety
sleep apnea
Sleep apnea
  • Central sleep apnea syndrome
  • Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
  • Central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome
  • Video OSAS
what is the problem with apnea
What is the problem with apnea?
  • Acute problem: each apnea/hypopnea is followed by desaturation and arousal → sleep fragmentation → bad quality of sleep → day-time symptoms (sleepiness, concentration problems)
  • Chronic consequences: arterial and pulmonary hypertension, obesity, increased risk of ischemic heart desease and cerebrovascular infarcts, decreased somatotropin release, insulin and leptin resistance
therapy of osas
Therapy of OSAS
  • Change diet and increase physical activity to decrease BMI
  • ENT surgery (adenotonsilectomy, plastic surgery on the soft palate)
  • Stomatosurgery
  • CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure)
increased day time sleepiness
Increased day-time sleepiness
  • = decreased ability to maintain wakefulness during the day
  • Hypersomnia of central origin
    • Narkolepsy
    • Recurrent hypersomnia
    • Idiopathic hypersomnia
  • Hypersomnia due to other factors (organic brain disease; drugs, alcohol)
  • Symptoms:
    • Excessive sleepiness with repeated episodes of naps or lapses into sleep of short duration
    • Cataplexy (sudden loss of bilateral muscle tone propvoked by strong emotion)
    • Sleep paralysis
    • Hypnagogic hallucinations
  • PSG and MSLT: reduced sleep latency, sleep-onset REM (SOREM)
  • Genetic features (HLA typing: DQB1*0602)
  • Deficit of hypocretin (orexin) – peptid secreted in the hypothalamus
Idiopathic hypersomnia
  • Increased need of day-time sleep, but not episodic

Recurrent hypersomia

  • Kleine-Levin syndrome
    • Episodes of hypersomnia, hyperphagia, hypersexuality, mental status changes (aggression)
therapy of hypersomnia
Therapy of hypersomnia
  • Changing day-time schedules
  • Medication
    • Methylfenhydate
    • Modafinil
    • Sodiumoxybate
    • Tricyclic antidepressants (imipramin), thymoleptics (cytalopram, sertralin)
circadian rhythm disorders i
Circadian-Rhythm Disorders I
  • Abnormal timing and length of sleep
  • Desynchronization of one’s biological rhytmicity and the external circadian rhythm
    • e.g. non-24 hour sleep-wake disorder of blind
circadian rhythm disorders ii
Circadian-Rhythm Disorders II.
  • Delayed/advanced sleep-phase syndrome
  • Irregular sleep-wake pattern
  • Jet lag syndrome
    • Better tolerance of Western fligths
  • Shift work sleep disorder
circadian rhythm disorders iii
Circadian-Rhythm Disorders III
  • Therapy:
    • Regular physical activities and regular food intake to strengthen synchronization
    • Morning illumination with bright light (2.5-10 tousand Lux)
    • Melatonin
    • Chronotherapy (extension of the day to 27 hours)
parasomnias nrem x rem
Parasomnias NREM x REM
  • NREM parasomnias – arousal disorders
    • Confusional arousals
    • Sleepwalking
    • Sleep terrors
  • REM parasomnias
    • REM sleep behavior disorders
    • Nightmares – terrifying dreams provoke arousal with highly emotional and anxious reaction
other parasomnias
Other parasomnias
  • Bedwetting
  • Somniloqia (sleep talking)
  • Sleep-related eating
    • Compulsive
    • Not provoked by hunger
    • The patient eats inedible or toxic substances
  • Hypnagogic hallucinations
abnormal movements related to sleep
Abnormal movements related to sleep
  • RLS
  • Bruxismus
  • Rhythmic movement disorder
restless legs syndrome
Restless Legs Syndrome
  • Disagreeable leg sensations that usually occur prior to sleep onset and cause an almost irresistible urge to move the legs
  • Causes sleep onset insomnia
  • Etiology
    • Primary (idiopathic)
    • Secondary (pregnancy, uraemia, anaemia)
epilepsy and sleep i
Epilepsy and sleep I
  • Sleep EEG recordings can show epileptic discharges that were not present in wakefulness
  • In general epileptic discharges are more frequent in NREM then in REM sleep
  • Sleep deprivation or bad quality sleep can provoke epileptic seizures
  • Seizures appear typically during sleep or on awakening in some epilepsy syndromes
neuromuscular disease
Neuromuscular disease
  • Sleep-related breathing disorder
    • Decreased dilatation of the pharynx in sleep
    • Inability to change position during sleep
    • Decreased ventilation
  • Depression, anxiety
cerebral palsy neurodegenerative diseases
Cerebral palsy, neurodegenerative diseases
  • Limited perception of extrinsic stimuli
  • Limited social contacts
  • Limited abilities of education in mental retardation
  • Altered ascendant reticular formation maintaining wakefulness
  • Loss of circadian regulation
  • Epileptic seizures
  • Episodes of increased sleepiness, apathy, irritability
  • Hyperactivity
  • Hypnagogic jerking (sleep starts) interfering with falling asleep
  • Pain, crying