Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Cells and Organs of the immune System A macrophage and bacterium Sept 26, 2002
本章大綱 • 1. Hematopoiesis (造血) • 2. Cells of the Immune System • 3. Organs of the Immune System
Locations of hematopoiesis Yolk sac fetal liver spleen (3rd to 7th month) bone marrow
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) Pluripotent (self renewal): cytokines 1. T progenitor 2. B progenitor cytokines 1. T cell 2. B cell Lymphoid stem cell 1. Monocyte, macrophage, neutrophil 2. Eosinophil 3. Basophil 4. Erythrocyte 5. platelets 1. Granulocyte/monocyte progenitor 2. Eosinophil progenitor 3. Basophil progenitor 4. Erythroid progenitor 5. megakaryocyte cytokines cytokines Myeloid stem cell
Clinical Use of Hematopoietic Stem Cells 1. Providing a functional immune system to individuals with a genetically immunodeficiency. 2. Replacing a defective hematopoitic system with a functional one. 3. Restoring the hematopoitic system of cancer patients after treatment with high doses of chemo- therapeutic agents or radiation.
Autologous : The recipient is also the donor. Syngeneic : The donor is the identical twin of the recipient. Allogeneic : The donor and the recipient are not genetically identical within the same species. Xenogeneic : The donor and the recipient are from different species.
Cells for transplantation Bone-marrow cells Peripheral blood cells Umbilical-cord blood cells (Cord Blood) Stem-cell transplantation
Cells of the Immune System
Normal Adult Blood-Cell Count __________________________________ Cell type Cells/mm3 % ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Red blood cells 5.0 x 106 Platelets 2.5 x 105 Leukocytes 7.3 x 103 Neutrophil 50 – 70 Lymphocyte 20 – 40 Monocyte 1 – 6 Eosinophil 1 – 3 Basophil < 1 ____________________________________________
- Lymphoid Cells • B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, • Null Cells (natural killer, NK cells) • - Mononuclear Cells • (Lymphoid cells), • Monocytes, Macrophages • Polymorphonuclear Cells (PMN) or granulocytic • cells or granulocytes • Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils • Mast Cells • - Dendritic Cells
Lymphoid Cells - 20% - 40% of the body’s white blood cells - 99% of the cells in the lymph - ~ 1010 - 1012 in the human body - Circulate in the blood and lymph - Migrate into the tissue spaces and lymphoid organs
T Lymphocytes: Thymus BLymphocytes: Bursa of Fabricius (黏液囊) or BoneMarrow
T Lymphocyte Markers T cell receptor (TCR) CD4/CD8 CD28 CD45
B Lymphocyte Markers Immunoglobulin (Ig) B220 (CD45R) MHC Class II CR1 (CD35) & CR2 (CD21) FcgRII (CD32) B7-1 (CD80) & B7-2 (CD86) CD40
Null Cells • Most are large, granular lymphocytes • called natural killer (NK) cells. • - Constitute 5 - 10% of the lymphocytes • in human peripheral blood. • - NK T cells
Mononuclear Cells - Monocytes circulating in the blood - Macrophages in the tissues
Macrophages are 5- to 10-fold larger than monocytes and contain more organelles, especially lysosomes