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Ozone Formation and Impact on Agricultural Yield and Human Health. Moti L Mittal moti@osc.edu Ohio Supercomputer Center/The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio (USA) BAQ 2004 Workshop 6-8 December, 2004, Agra. Ozone is short-lived.. Tums for climate system?. Long-Lived Species. • CFC’s.

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ozone formation and impact on agricultural yield and human health

Ozone Formation and Impact on Agricultural Yield and Human Health

Moti L Mittal

moti@osc.edu

Ohio Supercomputer Center/The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio (USA)

BAQ 2004 Workshop

6-8 December, 2004, Agra

ozone a special molecule

Ozone is short-lived..

Tums for climate system?

Long-Lived Species

• CFC’s

• N2O

Junge relationship-

• CH4

What it means to O3

• CH3CCl3

• CH3Br

Moderately Long-Lived Species

• CO

1s 100s 1hr 1 day 1yr 10 yrs 100 yrs

• Aerosols

• Trop O3

• SO2

• H2O2

• NOx

• DMS

• C3H6

• C5H8

Short-Lived Species

• CH3O2

• HO2

• NO3

0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10,000

Ozone- a special molecule

Ozone is a greenhouse gas and an oxidant

  • Ozone is a UV shield – its stratospheric loss is harmful.
  • Ozone is a pollutant in the troposhere – contact is harmful.
  • Ozone is an oxidant – it controls the ability of the troposhere to clean itself.
  • Understanding Troposheric Ozone is key to climate and regional air quality.
  • Ozone contributes 8-15% to the total radiative forces associated with greenhouse gases.
  • Ozone is MADE in the atmosphere – not emitted into the atmosphere.
  • What is the abundance of troposheric O3 ? What determines it’s abundance?
stratosphere troposphere coupling

PHOTOCHEMISTRY

Source 400

420

Production = 4100

Sink 820

Destruction = 3680

420

Net

photochemical

production

Q: What is the contribution of stratosphere to tropospheric O3

- Stratosphere/Troposphere exchange

Varies with z,

- in-situ photochemical production

location, and season

- Transport from other regions?

Stratosphere-troposphere coupling

A key issue: Ozone production and removal in the troposphere

Altitude, km

computational model
Computational Model
  • Covers Indian Region from -.9ºN to 58.5º N and 42.6º E to 66.5ºE and is gridded with 91x 91 horizon mesh.
  • MM5 – for meteorological variables
  • HANK – for chemical species
hank the model considers
HankThe model considers

*154 Reactions

*28 photolysis reactions

*49 transported species (non-steady state)

*54 reactive species

slide6

Comparison of Measured and Model Values

Comparison of diurnal variation in January at Agra

slide7

Comparison of Measured and Model Values

Comparison of diurnal variation in January at Agra

Comparison of diurnal variation in January at Agra

slide13

Impact on Agricultural Yield

(Exploratory Assessment)

A recent study shows that China, Japan, and South Korea lost 1-9 % yield of wheat, rice, and corn and 23-27% yield of soybeans, of 1990 US$ 3.5, 1.2, and 0.24 billion

Increased Ozone levels decrease the growth rate of trees that store CO2

health effects
Health Effects
  • Ozone as a toxic gas can damage the

pulmonary tissues.

  • Ozone may affect the circulatory system.
  • Recent study in Hong Kong suggests

ozone may increase risk of cardiac

arrhythmias and heart failure in the elderly

population.

  • Studies are needed on the health effects of

ozone in Asian region

summary
Summary
  • Chemistry-Climate Interactions include many factors
  • Tropospheric ozone is an important issue in climate (& air quality)
  • Emission inventory is important

(1) Laboratory studies, field measurements, and “modeling” can describe and “quantify” chemical/transport(?) processes.

(2) How do we incorporate this information to assess productivity loss, impacts, etc.? National Crop Loss Assessment Network is an idea

Going beyond “case studies” and “proof of concept”

- the next frontier.