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Global Marketing Management Culture & Management Style. MKTG 3231 Fall 2014 Mrs. Tamara L. Cohen. Class # 4. Case #1: Skewed Sex Ratio in India due Sept.15 HARD COPY of write-up due at beginning of class (no folders please) Requirements for each Partnership Case Write-up:

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global marketing management culture management style

Global Marketing ManagementCulture & Management Style

MKTG 3231

Fall 2014

Mrs. Tamara L. Cohen

Class # 4

Case #1: Skewed Sex Ratio in Indiadue Sept.15

HARD COPY of write-up due at beginningof class (no folders please)

Requirements for each Partnership Case Write-up:

4 - 6 pages, typed and double-spaced

Exhibits / Appendices / Resources in addition to 4-6 pages

You and your partner should submit one write-up together.

Use the article (in the Course Pack), PLUS use other sources that you will find yourselves.

Your Case Write-up must include:

Executive Summary (1 paragraph on 1st page)

Background (brief summary of case as you see it)

Problems (be incisive & comprehensive)

Courses of Action (address every problem identified)

Recommendations (most important problem(s) & its/their solutions)

Conclusions (short & sweet)

Exhibits / Appendices / Resources e.g. web sites, books, charts. Remember to acknowledge all sources, including the case study itself.

Use headings. Pay attention to weighting of each section.

group project
Group Project
  • Project Proposal due on Monday, Sept.29
  • What do you need to do?
      • Choose your group 4 (or 5) students in each group
      • Choose your country 1 group per country
      • Choose your product / brand - NOT marketed in that country yet - real or imagined
  • Let me know - your group, country, product / brand / service

Countries reserved:




  • Hofstede’s dimensions of culture in international business:
  • individualism vs collectivism IDV
  • power distance PDI
  • uncertainty avoidance UAI
  • masculinity vs. femininity MAS (achievement vs. nurturing)
  • long-term vs. short-term orientation LTO
  • indulgence vs. restraint IND


  • why accommodate cultural differences
  • how & why management styles vary around the world
  • knowledge of prevailing management style in country = business culture, management values, business methods & behaviors, & willingness to accommodate differences

asuccess in international market arena

what is culture
What is CULTURE?

= set of values, beliefs, rules, & institutions held by a specific group of people

People are at center of all business activity.

People bring different backgrounds, assumptions, expectations, ways of communicating. This is CULTURE.

global perspective of culture
Global Perspective of CULTURE

Culture, including all its elements, profoundly affects management style & overall business systems.


    • individualists, “visionaries”
  • Japanese
    • consensus-oriented & committed to group
  • Northern Europeans (includes Germans)
    • technicians, detail-orientated
  • Central & Southern Europeans
    • elitists & rank conscious
foundations for developing cultural awareness
Foundations for developing cultural awareness




Belief that one’s own ethnic group or culture is superior to that of others

Cultural literacy

  • Detailed knowledge of a culture that enables a person to function effectively within it


geert hofstede
Geert Hofstede

“Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster."

  • Hofstede studied > 110,000 people working in IBM subsidiaries in 40 countries
  • Framework examines cultural differences using 6 dimensions
  • All aspects of consumer behavior are rooted in culture.
hofstede framework dimensions
Hofstede Framework Dimensions

Power Distance

Individualism versus Collectivism

Long-Term Orientation

Uncertainty Avoidance

Indulgence versus Restraint

Achievement versus Nurturing


Individualism versus Collectivism


= degree to which individuals are integrated into groups

Individualist societies

  • everyone expected to take care of him/herself & his/her immediate family
  • value hard work, entrepreneurism, individual responsibility

Collectivist societies

  • cohesive groups; often extended families; protection & loyalty
  • goal of group harmony in families
  • group responsibility for members, actions, success & failure

Power Distance


= extent to which less powerful members of society/institutions accept & expect unequal distribution of power

  • represents inequality of members by members
  • accepting social inequality tantamount to endorsing it
  • high PDI means big gap between superiors & subordinates; more hierarchical management
  • low PDI suggests greater equality; power from hard work, seen as more legitimate

Uncertainty avoidance


= society’s tolerance for uncertainty & ambiguity

  • how comfortable are people with unfamiliar situations?

High UAI

  • spur people to minimize uncertainty by erecting strict laws, rules, consequences for deviation
  • often more emotional, anxious, fear change


  • societies more tolerant of different opinions & practices
  • open to change, new ideas, more entrepreneurial

Achievement versus Nurturing


= Masculinity (achievement) versus Femininity (nurturing)

  • distribution of roles between genders
  • values vary less among societies than
  • values range from assertive & competitive to modest & caring
  • culture’s value of personal achievement & materialism (often translating into entrepreneurial drive) versus relationships & quality of life (usually more relaxed lifestyles)

Long-Term Orientation


= society’s time perspective

  • essence of differences between Eastern & Western cultures

High LTO

  • tradition is adaptable: cultural change is quicker because tradition & commitment are not obstacles to change
  • save & invest, thrift, perseverance, humility
  • strong work ethic due to expectation of pay-off from hard work
  • status upheld in relationships

Low LTO (= high SHORT-term orientation)

  • individual stability, protect reputation
  • high respect for tradition, fulfill social obligations
  • prefer quick results

Indulgence vs. Restraint


= freedom to express gratification


= society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun


= society that suppresses gratification of needs, and regulates it by means of strict social norms




Individualism versus Collectivism

LOW Power

HIGH Power


Power Distance



LOW Uncert-ainty

Uncertainty Avoidance



Power Distance

LOW Power

HIGH Power


HIGH Uncert-ainty

  • UAI high
  • IDV higher than most Latin cultures
  • MAS is highest dimension
  • IDV is high too
  • PDI is low
  • UAI is low
  • PDI high
  • IDV very low
  • LTO very high
ad ap ta ti on is key
Adaptationis key!
  • Essential to effective adaptation:
    • awareness of own culture
    • recognition that differences in others can cause anxiety, frustration & misunderstanding of host’s intentions
  • Self-reference criterion (SRC) is especially operative in business customs
  • Key to adaptation is to remain true to oneself, but to develop understanding of & willingness to accommodate differences
business customs
Business Customs

Cultural ImperativesEssential friendship or trusting relationship must be established before business can begin: “GUANXI”關係or关系, denotes relationships in the Chinese business world that may be leveraged regularly and voluntarily; critical to successful business endeavors; Japanese NINGEN KANKEI; Latin American COMPADRE.

Cultural ElectivesBehaviors that can be conformed to, but are not absolutely required. e.g. gifts; understand importance of banquets in China; appreciate importance of Karaoke evenings in China; greeting, eating, drinking, Japanese bowing, Arab coffee, Czech aperitif, Chinese drinking at banquets

Cultural ExclusivesForeigner must NEVER participate in these customs. customs only for locals, aliens barred, apologize if err, never joke about or criticize local customs. e.g. Paul Midler’s referring to China as home; non-Muslims never participate in Muslim prayer rituals

trouble is paul midler s business in the china game
Trouble is (Paul Midler’s) BusinessinThe China Game

“What importers needed to know before they moved their business to China was whether the economy was safe. One important contributing factor was a changing perception of China as a low-risk environment.”

  • Quality fade

“Manufacturers that engaged in the manipulation of quality knew that if they were caught, there was an inclination to ‘work things out’”

“…the entire process of solving problems in China (is) itself an enigma”

business in china
Business in China

Americans are accustomed to getting exactly what they order.

In Chinese manufacturing, the customer’s exact wishes matter only as far as necessary to capture the initial order.

Cultural origins of counterfeiting - good copies are admired

No industrial revolution in China

confucius status relationships in china
Confucius:Status relationships in China
  • OBEDIENCE & DEFERENCE to superiors = strong values in China
  • Confucius’s teachings were foundation for Chinese education for 2,000 years until 1911: 5 cardinal relationships
  • The ruled were counseled to trade obedience & loyalty for benevolence of rulers. Strict adherence led to social harmony, the antidote to violence & civil war of Confucian times.

“It’s not the gift that counts

but how you present it.”

j apan

Gift protocols have prevailed in Japan for centuries:

■ types of gifts to give, ■ wrapping, ■ presentation

  • Gifts opened in private
  • Give & receive gifts with both hands
  • No surprises (individual / group)
  • Give gift at end of visit
  • Comment on modesty & insignific-ance of your gift (conveys humility)
  • Value of gift befits status
  • Expect & respect reciprocity
  • Avoid cash gifts
  • Avoid gifts with company logo (except souvenirs)
  • Avoid bows (considered unattractive)
  • Avoid ribbons (different colors have different meanings)
  • Avoid 4 of anything (“shi” = death)
  • NEVER give a knife (suggests suicide)

Gift giving in China was once a high art form. Communist regime outlawed gift-giving to officials. Now communism is relaxing and gifts are expected.

Exchanging gifts is an important part of Chinese culture because it is one way of building guanxi.

Proper etiquette to refuse offer of a gift, even more than once. Giver is expected to persist. Acceptance will follow. No matter its value, the gift is referred to as “a small token”

Give and receive gifts with both hands

Avoid expensive gifts. Quality pen is good.

No white, blue, black gifts, no red ink.

No sharp objects; no handkerchiefs

No clocks

No flowers (only for funerals)

Symbolism of numbers 2a 8a 6a 4 x

Middle East

Gift giving is an elevated custom in personal & business relationships.

Tenets: good manners are essential ingredient in person’s character, and generosity to guests is essential to good reputation

Do not give gift when 1st meet someone (interpreted as bribe)

Present gift in front of others (interpreted as bribe if one-on-one)

Give & receive with right hand or both hands

Reciprocate in kind

No alcohol, no pigskin

No gifts to wife of colleague


Avoid red roses (suggest romance), white flowers, number 13

Never wrap flowers in paper; present flowers unwrapped

Yellow flowers signal grieving in Eastern Europe.

Avoid chrysanthemums in Italy, France, Belgium, Spain (only for coffins or graves)

Carnations are only used for funerals in Sweden, Poland & Germany

Even numbers of flowers can be bad luck in Germany & Austria


  • Business gift giving is low-key, few protocols. Often superfluous now.
  • UK, France, Italy: Send gift (flowers / book)after visit.
  • Good to bring chocolates or wine to dinner at home.
Bring chocolates or wine if invited to a home.

Avoid bringing vodka.

Bring a bouquet of flowers, but there must be an odd number of flowers. (Even numbers for funerals).

From earliest childhood, Russian boys are taught the importance of giving flowers.

Bring gifts for kids.

Host/business associate may find it difficult to reciprocate.

Strong tradition of enthusiastic giving & receiving gifts.

Spontaneity fuels Russian gift-giving (rather than strict social protocols).

Great honor to be invited to a Russian business associate’s home. It is also a burden for the host. Russian tradition demands that you be served a meal that far exceeds everyone’s appetite, & often the financial capabilities of the host, e.g. caviar served with large spoons.


What do we know about Culture & Management Style?

  • Cultivate a global mindset:
    • develop cultural adaptability
    • bridge cultural gaps
    • practice openness to unfamiliar principles & practices
    • commit to flexibility
  • Business behavior derives largely from the basic cultural environment in which business operates.