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The Standard Model of Particles and Interactions. Ian Hinchliffe 26 June 2002. What is the World Made of?. Ancient times – 4 elements 19 th century – atoms Early 20 th century – electrons, protons, neutrons Today – quarks and leptons. The Atom in 1900.

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The Standard Model of Particles and Interactions


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what is the world made of
What is the World Made of?
  • Ancient times – 4 elements
  • 19th century – atoms
  • Early 20th century – electrons, protons, neutrons
  • Today – quarks and leptons
the atom in 1900
The Atom in 1900...
  • Atoms get rearranged in chemical reactions
  • More than 100 atoms (H, He, Fe …)
  • Internal structure was not understood – known to have electric charge inside
periodic table
Periodic Table
  • Elements are grouped into families with similar properties (e.g. Inert gasses He, Ne etc.) led to the Periodic Table
  • This suggested an new structure with simpler building blocks
models of the atom
Models of the Atom
  • Experiments broke atoms apart
  • Very light negative charged particles (electrons) surrounding a heavy positive nucleus
  • Atom, is mostly “empty”
the nucleus
The Nucleus
  • Nucleus is small and dense; it was thought for a while to be fundamental
  • But still as many nucleii as atoms
  • Simplification – all nucleii are made up of charged protons and neutral neutrons
quarks
Quarks
  • We now know that even protons and neutrons are not fundamental
  • They are made up of smaller particles called quarks
  • So far, quarks appear to be fundamental (“point-like”)
the modern atom
The Modern Atom
  • A cloud of electrons in constant motion around the nucleus
  • And protons and neutrons in motion in the nucleus
  • And quarks in motion within the protons and neutrons
size inside atoms
Size inside atoms
  • The nucleus is 10,000 times smaller than the atom
  • Proton and neutron are 10 times smaller than nucleus
  • No evidence that quarks have any size at all !
new particles
New Particles
  • Collisions of electrons and nucleii in cosmic rays and particle accelerators beginning in the 1930’s led to the discovery of many new particles
  • Some were predicted but many others came as surprises
  • Muon like a heavy electron: ‘Who ordered that?’
  • At first, all of them were thought to be fundamental
what is fundamental
What is Fundamental?
  • Physicists have discovered hundreds of new particles
  • Most, we now know are not fundamental
  • We have developed a theory, called The Standard Model, which appears to explain what we observe
  • This model includes 6 quarks, 6 leptons and 13 force-related particles
what is the world made of14
What is the World made of?
  • The real world is not made of individual quarks (more on that later)
  • Quarks exist only in groups making up what we call hadrons: (proton and neutron are hadrons)
  • E.g. a proton is 2 up quarks and 1 down quark
  • We are all made from up and down quarks and electrons
matter and antimatter
Matter and Antimatter
  • For every particle ever found, there is a corresponding antimatter particle or antiparticle
  • They look just like matter but have the opposite charge
  • Particles are created or destroyed in pairs
particles can decay
Particles may decay, i.e. transform from one to another

Most are unstable

Proton and electron are stable

Neutron can decay to electron and a proton

Energy appears to be missing. It is carried off by a neutrino

Particles can decay
generations
Generations
  • The six quarks and the six leptons are each organized into three generations
  • The generations are heavier “Xerox” copies
  • “Who ordered the 2nd and 3rd generations?”
  • The quarks have fractional charges (+2/3 and -1/3) The leptons have charge -1 or 0
what about leptons
What about Leptons?
  • There are six leptons, three charged and three neutral
  • They appear to be point-like particles with no internal structure
  • Electrons are the most common and are the only ones found in ordinary matter
  • Muons (m) and taus (t) are heavier and charged like the electron
  • Neutrinos have no charge and very little mass
matter summary
Matter Summary
  • So all the universe is made of First Generation quarks and leptons
  • We now turn to how the quarks and leptons interact with each other, stick together and decay
four forces
Four Forces
  • There are four fundamental interactions in nature
  • All forces can be attributed to these interactions
  • Gravity is attractive; others can be repulsive
  • Interactions are also responsible for decay
how do particles interact
How do Particles Interact?
  • Objects can interact without touching
  • How do magnets “feel” each other to attract or repel?
  • How does the sun attract the earth?
  • A force is something communicated between objects
electromagnetism
Electromagnetism
  • The electromagnetic force causes opposite charges to attract and like charges to repel
  • The carrier is called the photon (g)
  • The photon is massless and travels at “the speed of light”
residual e m
Residual E-M
  • Normally atoms are neutral having the same number of protons and electrons
  • The charged parts of one atom can attract the charged parts of another atom
  • Can bind atoms into molecules
why doesn t a nucleus explode
Why Doesn’t a Nucleus Explode?
  • A heavy nucleus contains many protons, all with positive charge
  • These repel each other
  • Why does it not blow apart?
strong force
Strong Force
  • In addition to their electric charge, quarks also carry a new kind of charge called color charge
  • The force between color charged particles is the “strong force”
the gluon
The Gluon
  • The strong force holds quarks together to form hadrons
  • Its carrier particles are called gluons; there are 8 of these
  • The strong force only acts on very short distances
color and anti color
Color and Anti-color
  • There are three color charges and three anti-color charges
  • But note, these colors have nothing to do with color and visible light, they are only a way describing the physics
colored quarks and gluons
Colored Quarks and Gluons
  • Each quark has one of the three color charges and each antiquark has one of the three anticolor charges
  • Baryons and mesons are color-neutral just as red-green-blue makes white light
quark confinement
Quark Confinement
  • Color force (QCD) gets stronger at long distances!!
  • Color-charged particles cannot be isolated
  • Color-charged quarks are confined in hadrons with other quarks
  • The composites are color neutral
color field
Color Field
  • Quarks in a hadron exchange gluons
  • If one of the quarks is pulled away from its neighbors, the color field stretches between that quark and its neighbors
  • New quark-antiquark pairs are created in the field
quarks emit gluons
Quarks Emit Gluons
  • When a quark emits or absorbs a gluon, the quarks color charge must change to conserve color charge
  • A red quark emits a red/antiblue gluon and changes into a blue quark
residual strong force
Residual Strong Force
  • The strong force between the quarks in one proton and the quarks in another proton is strong enough to overwhelm the repulsive electromagnetic force
weak force
Weak Force
  • Weak interactions are responsible for the decay of massive quarks and leptons into lighter quarks and leptons
  • Example: neutron to decay into proton + electron + neutrino
  • This is why all matter consists of the lightest quarks and leptons (plus neutrinos)
electroweak force
Electroweak Force
  • In the Standard Model, the weak and the electromagnetic forces have been combined into a unified electroweak theory
  • At very short distances (~10-18 meters), the weak and electromagnetic interactions have comparable strengths
  • Force particles are photon, W and Z
what about gravity
What about Gravity?
  • Gravity is very weak
  • Relevant at macroscopic distances
  • The gravity force carrier, the graviton, is predicted but has never been seen
quantum mechanics
Quantum Mechanics
  • Behavior of atoms and particles is described by Quantum Mechanics
  • Certain properties such as energy can have only discrete values, not continuous values
  • Particle properties are described by these values (quantum numbers) such as:
    • Electric Charge
    • Color Charge
    • Flavor
    • Spin
the pauli exclusion principle
The Pauli Exclusion Principle
  • We can use quantum particle properties to categorize the particles we find
  • Some particles, called Fermions, obey the Exclusion Principle while others, called Bosons, do not
what holds the world together
What Holds the World Together?
  • We have learned that the world is made up of six quarks and six leptons
  • Everything we see is a conglomeration of quarks and leptons (and their antiparticles)
  • There are four fundamental forces and there are force carrier particles associated with each force
how does a particle decay
How does a particle decay?
  • The Standard Model explains why some particles decay into other particles
  • In nuclear decay, a nucleus can split into smaller nuclei
  • When a fundamental particle decays, it has no constituents (by definition) so it must change into totally new particles
the unstable nucleus
The Unstable Nucleus
  • We have seen that the strong force holds the nucleus together despite the electromagnetic repulsion of the protons
  • However, not all nuclei live forever
  • Some decay
nuclear decay
Nuclear Decay
  • The nucleus can split into smaller nuclei
  • This is as if the nucleus “boiled off” some of its pieces
  • This happens in a nuclear reactor
muon decay
Muon Decay
  • Muon decay is an example of particle decay
  • Here the end products are not pieces of the starting particle but rather are totally new particles
missing mass
Missing Mass
  • In most decays, the particles or nuclei that remain have a total mass that is less than the mass of the original particle or nucleus
  • The missing mass gives kinetic energy to the decay products
particle decay mediators
Particle Decay Mediators
  • When a fundamental particle decays, it turns itself into a less massive particle and a force-carrier particle (the W boson)
  • The force-carrier then emerges as other particles
  • A particle can decay if it is heavier than the total mass of its decay products and if there is a force to mediate the decay
virtual particles
Virtual Particles
  • Particles decay via force-carrier particles
  • In some cases, a particle may decay via a force-carrier that is more massive than the initial particle
  • The force-carrier particle is immediately transformed into lower-mass particles
  • The short-lived massive particle appears to violate the law of energy conservation
the uncertainty principle
The Uncertainty Principle
  • A result of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is that these high-mass particles may come into being if they are very short-lived.
  • These particles are called virtual particles
different interactions
Different Interactions
  • Strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions all cause particle decays. However, only weak interactions can cause the decay of fundamental particles into other types of particles.
  • Physicists call particle types "flavors." The weak interaction can change a charm quark into a strange quark while emitting a virtual W boson (charm and strange are flavors).
  • Only the weak interaction (via the W boson) can change flavor and allow the decay of a truly fundamental particle.
other interactions
Other Interactions
  • Electromagnetic Decays:
    • The p0 (neutral pion) is a meson. The quark and antiquark can annihilate; from the annihilation come two photons. This is an example of an electromagnetic decay.
  • Strong Decays:
    • The hcparticle is a meson made up of a c and an anti-c. It can undergo a strong decay into two gluons (which emerge as hadrons).
annihilations
Annihilations
  • These are not decays but they also take place through virtual particles
  • Annihilations of light quarks at very high energy can produce very massive quarks in the laboratory
antiproton annihilation
Antiproton Annihilation
  • This bubble chamber shows an antiproton colliding with a proton, annihilating and producing eight pions
  • One pion decays into a muon and a neutrino (which leaves no track)
fundamental processes
Fundamental Processes
  • With what you have now learned, you can make models of the fundamental processes that physicists study
  • These models are the foundation for detailed calculations of what happens at a high energy accelerator
mysteries and failures
Mysteries and Failures
  • The Standard Model is a theory of the universe
  • It provides a good description of phenomena observed by experiments
  • It is still incomplete in many ways: why 3 generations? What is dark matter?
is the standard model wrong
Is the Standard Model Wrong?
  • We need to go beyond the Standard Model in the same way that Einstein’s Theory of Relativity extended Newton’s laws of mechanics
  • We will need to extend the Standard Model with something new to explain mass, gravity, etc.
three generations
Three Generations
  • There are three sets of quarks and three sets of leptons
  • Why are there exactly three generations of matter?
  • Why do we see only one in the real world?
what about masses
What About Masses?
  • The Standard Model cannot explain why a particle has a certain mass
  • Physicists have theorized the existence of a new field, called the Higgs field, which interacts with other particles to give them mass
  • So far, the Higgs has not been seen by experiment
grand unified theory
Grand Unified Theory
  • We believe that GUT will unify the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces
  • All three forces would be different aspects of the same, unified interaction
  • The three forces would merge into one at high enough energy
supersymmetry
Supersymmetry
  • Some physicists attempting to unify gravity with the other fundamental forces have suggested that every fundamental particle should have a massive “shadow” particle
slide63
Modern physics has theories for quantum mechanics, relativity and gravity but they do not quite work with each other
  • If we lived in a world of more than three spatial dimensions, these problems can be resolved
  • String theory suggests that in a world with three ordinary dimensions and some additional very small dimensions, particles are strings and membranes
extra dimensions
Extra Dimensions
  • String Theory requires more than three space dimensions
  • These extra dimensions could be very small so that we do not see them
  • Experiments are now searching for evidence of extra dimensions
dark matter
Dark Matter
  • It appears that the universe is not made of the same kind of matter as our sun and the stars
  • The dark matter does exert a gravitational attraction on ordinary matter but has not been detected directly
the accelerating universe
The Accelerating Universe
  • Recent experiments using Type Ia Supernovae have shown that the universe is still expanding and the rate of expansion is increasing
  • This acceleration must be driven by a new mechanism which has been named dark energy
the expanding universe
The Expanding Universe
  • Studies of the most distant supernova ever detected indicates that the universe did go through a phase where the expansion slowed down
  • It is now speeding up
conclusion
Conclusion
  • The Standard Model is a powerful synthesis that explains a huge number of observations in a simple framework. It is to physics what evolution is to biology.
  • There are many important questions beyond the Standard Model