Point Vs. Nonpoint • Point source pollution • Nonpoint source pollution
Types of Water Pollution • 8 types of pollutants • 1. Sediment • 2. Thermal Pollutants • 3. Algal and inorganic plant nutrients • 4. Disease causing agents • 5. Sewage • 6. Organic compounds • 7. Inorganic compounds • 8. Radioactive substances
Sedimentation • Sediment Pollution High sediment load
Water Born Diseases • Protozoan: Amoebiasis, Cryptosporidia, Giardia • Parasitic: Schistosomiasis (snail) & Dracunculiasis (Guniea Worm) • Bacterial: Cholera, Botulism, E. Coli, Typhoid, Diarrhea • Cholera • Acute watery diarrhea that can lead to death by severe dehydration and kidney failure. • Two hours to five days - incubation • Explosive outbreaks • 75% asymptomatic but Pathogens in feces for 7 to 14 days. • Unlike other diarrheal diseases, it can kill healthy adults within hours. • Original reservoir was the Ganges • Six pandemics were recorded that killed millions of people across Europe, Africa and the Americas. • Giardia - diarrhea
Guinea Worm • 3 foot long parasitic worm • Water flea carries larvae of the Guinea worm • Immature worms pierce the intestinal wall, grow to adulthood, and mate. Males die, females make their way most often to the lower limbs. • The worms cause swelling and painful, burning blisters. Sufferers tend to go into the water for relief, where the blisters burst freeing thousands of young larvae who find water fleas.
Escherichia Coli The cattle spread E. coli 0157:H7 by defecating and drooling in shared water troughs. In June of 1998, Georgia health officials were notified that a number of children had become ill with E. coli O157:H7 infections and were hospitalized in Atlanta-area hospitals. Public health investigators interviewed victims’ families and learned that all had become ill after visiting the White Water Water Park.
BOD • Effect of sewage on dissolved oxygen and biological oxygen demand- River
Dead Zone • Inorganic Plant and Algal Nutrients • The Dead Zone in the Gulf of Mexico
Dead Zone 2008 - 8K/Sq. Miles 2009 – 3K/Sq. Miles
Types of Water Pollution • Eutrophication: An Enrichment Problem Oligotrophic lake
Types of Water Pollution • Eutrophication: An Enrichment Problem Eutrophic lake
Persistent Organic Pollutants Dioxins - Formed during combustion of trash, forest fires, and some industrial processes such as paper pulp bleaching and herbicide manufacturing. “dirty dozen” – carcinogenic - Stockholm Convention PCB’s - Polychlorinated biphenyls – used in the making of transformers, capacitors, and coolants(Production banned 1970’s) Between 1947 and 1977 General Electric released 1,300,000 pounds of PCBs into the Hudson River. The PCBs came from the company's two capacitor manufacturing plants. “dirty dozen” Saturday December 6th 2008 a number of Irish news sources reported that testing had revealed "extremely high” levels of PCBs in pork products, ranging from 80 to 200 times the EU's upper safe limit of 0.12 to 0.3 parts per billion. In 1986 the breast milk of healthy nursing mothers in the US contained between 1020 to 1770 ppb of PCBs. BPA - Bisphenol A or BPA, is a monomer used in the making of plastics (think nalgene). (Drink Containers) Hormone mimicry – estrogen.
Inorganics • Inorganic Chemicals • Lead • Mercury http://www.gotmercury.org/
Cuyahoga River The pollution of our waterways became a national issue in June of 1969, the day that the Cuyahoga River, flowing through Cleveland, Ohio, on its way to Lake Erie, caught on fire because it was so polluted.