Water Pollution Chapter 19 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Water Pollution Chapter 19

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  1. Water PollutionChapter 19 “Today everybody is downwind or downstream from somebody else.” William Ruckelshaus

  2. Key Concepts • Types, sources and effects of water pollution • Major pollution problems of surface water • Major pollution problems of groundwater • Reduction and prevention of water pollution • Drinking water quality

  3. Fig. 19-3 p. 485 Types and Sources of Water Pollution • Point sources • Nonpoint sources • Biological oxygen demand • Water quality

  4. NONPOINT SOURCES Rural homes Cropland Urban streets Animal feedlot POINT SOURCES Suburban development Factory Wastewater treatment plant Point and Nonpoint Sources

  5. Pollution of Streams • Oxygen sag curve • Factors influencing recovery

  6. Fig. 19-7 p. 491 Pollution of Lakes • Eutrophication • Slow turnover • Thermal stratification

  7. Case Study: The Great Lakes

  8. Groundwater Pollution: Sources • Low flow rates • Few bacteria • Cold temperatures Hazardous waste injection well Pesticides Coal strip mine runoff De-icing road salt Buried gasoline and solvent tank Cesspool septic tank Pumping well Gasoline station Waste lagoon Water pumping well Sewer Landfill Leakage from faulty casing Accidental spills Discharge Unconfined freshwater aquifer Confined aquifer Fig. 19-10 p. 494 Confined freshwater aquifer Groundwater flow

  9. Groundwater Pollution Prevention • Monitoring aquifers • Leak detection systems • Strictly regulating hazardous waste disposal • Storing hazardous materials above ground

  10. Ocean Pollution

  11. Fig. 19-14 p. 500 Case Study: Chesapeake Bay • Largest US estuary • Relatively shallow • Slow “flushing” action to Atlantic • Major problems with dissolved O2

  12. Oil Spills • Sources: offshore wells, tankers, pipelines and storage tanks • Effects: death of organisms, loss of animal insulation and buoyancy, smothering • Significant economic impacts • Mechanical cleanup methods: skimmers and blotters • Chemical cleanup methods: coagulants and dispersing agents

  13. Reduce runoff Buffer zone vegetation Reduce soil erosion Clean Water Act Water Quality Act Solutions: Preventing and Reducing Surface Water Pollution Nonpoint sources Point sources

  14. Technological Approach: Septic Systems • Require suitable soils and maintenance

  15. Technological Approach: Sewage Treatment • Mechanical and biological treatment

  16. Technological Approach: Advanced Sewage Treatment • Removes specific pollutants

  17. Technological Approach: Using Wetlands to Treat Sewage

  18. Fig. 19-11 p. 495 Drinking Water Quality • Bottled water • Safe Drinking Water Act • Maximum contaminant levels