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Surface Water. Streams and Rivers. Stream Erosion and Deposition. River Valleys. Flood Plains and Floods. Tigris – Euphrates River. The Nile River. Yangtze River. Ganges River. Amazon River. The Mississippi River. Water Phase Changes. Hydrologic Cycle. Streams and Rivers.

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surface water
Surface Water

Streams and Rivers

Stream Erosion and Deposition

River Valleys

Flood Plains and Floods

streams and rivers
Streams and Rivers

Surface Water

Tributary

Divide

River

A river system consists of a river and all of its tributaries.

VOCABULARY

tributary

river system

drainage basin

watershed

divide

gradient

discharge

The drainage basin of a river system is all the land that is drained by the river and its tributaries. A river’s velocity, gradient, discharge, and channel shape affect how it erodes and transports materials.

important definitions
Important Definitions

River System

  • ____________ – a stream and all its tributaries
  • ________ – a smaller stream that empties into a larger stream
  • _________ – the land area drained by a river system
  • ______ – a high point that separates river systems

Tributary

Watershed

Divide

river channels and drainage
River Channels and Drainage

There are different types of river channel patterns and river drainage patterns.

  • Dendritic
  • Radial
  • Rectangular
  • Trellis
slide17

Dendritic networkA drainage network whose interconnecting streams resemble the pattern of branches connecting to a deciduous tree

slide18

Radial network

A drainage network in which the streams flow outward from a cone-shaped mountain, and define a pattern resembling spokes on a wheel.

slide19

Rectangular networkA drainage network in which the streams join each other at right angles because of a rectangular grid of fractures that breaks up the ground and localizes channels.

slide20

Trellis networkA drainage system that develops across a landscape of parallel valleys and ridges so that major tributaries flow down the valleys and join a trunk stream that cuts through the ridge; the resulting map pattern resembles a garden trellis.

stream erosion and deposition
Stream Erosion and Deposition

Surface Water

Flow

Suspension:

Silt and clay

Bed load: sand, gravel,

pebbles and boulders

Materials carried in solution cannot be seen.

Rivers wear down Earth’s surface and erode and deposit materials. A river may carry materials in solution, in suspension, and in its bed load.

VOCABULARY

deposition

pothole

load

suspension

bed load

competence

capacity

delta

stream load
Stream Load
  • A stream can carry its load in three different ways:
  • 1.________ – material is dissolved
  • 2.__________ – particles are held up by stream’s moving water
  • 3._________ – material pushed or rolled along the stream’s channel

solution

suspension

bed load

stream erosion and deposition1
Stream Erosion and Deposition

Surface Water

Over time, sediments build up, forming a delta.

Velocity and discharge affect how much material a river can transport. When river velocity greatly decreases, sediment drops out of the water to form a delta or alluvial fan.

stream discharge
Stream Discharge
  • Discharge is the amount of water that flows past a point in a certain amount of time.
  • Discharge is dependent upon velocity, depth, and width of the stream.
  • Discharge = _______ x _____ x _____

velocity

depth

width

river deposition
RIVER DEPOSITION

A river drops some of its load when either its volume or its speed decreases eg when it enters an arid (dry) region, crosses an area of porous rock (eg limestone), enters a flat or gently sloping plain or enters a lake or the sea.Material transported or deposited by a river is called alluvium.

stream stages
________:

Rapids

Waterfalls

Fast-moving water

Steep slope

_______:

Broad floodplain

Meanders

Oxbow lakes

Meander Scars

Stream Stages

Youthful

Old

slide34

River Systems

Youthful

Mature

Old

river valleys
River Valleys

Surface Water

Youthful rivers form steep-sided canyons and V-shaped valleys. The lowest level to which a river can erode its bed is called its base level.

Rapids can form as a river runs down a deep slope, while a river that plunges over a cliff forms a waterfall.

floodplains and floods
Floodplains and Floods

Surface Water

Valley wall

Back swamp

Oxbow lake

Meander

Natural levees

Yazoo tributary

floodplain

A river that has cut down close to its base level tends to erode the sides of its valley, forming a meandering river in a wide flood plain.

VOCABULARY

flood

floodplain

meanders

oxbow lake

natural levees

flash flood

slide43

Oxbow lake

deposition

erosion

floodplains and floods1
Floodplains and Floods

Surface Water

River floods are natural events that can have constructive as well as destructive effects.

People have developed different methods to control and prevent river flooding.

slide48

Mississippi River Flood

1993 Before and After

vocabulary review
Vocabulary Review
  • Flood: The phenomenon whereby a river overflows its banks.
  • Flood plain:A wide, level area that borders a river and is covered by its water during a flood.
  • Meander: Broad: looping bends in a river.
  • Oxbow lake:A crescent-shaped body of water formed when sediments deposited by a river cut off a meander from the river.
  • Natural levees:Elevated ridges along a river’s bank that are formed by the deposition of the river’s sediment load.
  • Flash flood:A sudden flood, usually caused by intense, heavy rainfall.