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Surface Water. Review. Glaciers and Icebergs Wetlands Ponds and Lakes Streams and RIvers. 1. Runoff. 2. River Systems. 3. Rivers Shape the Land. 4. Profile of a River. 5. Flood Plains and Floods. Water Phase Changes. Hydrologic Cycle. A. Glaciers and Icebergs.

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surface water
Surface Water


  • Glaciers and Icebergs
  • Wetlands
  • Ponds and Lakes
  • Streams and RIvers

1. Runoff

2. River Systems

3. Rivers Shape the Land

4. Profile of a River

5. Flood Plains and Floods

a glaciers and icebergs
A. Glaciers and Icebergs
  • Glacier-huge mass of ice and snow that moves slowly over the land scraping and reshaping it
    • Valley
    • b. Continental

B. Wetlands

An area of land covered with a shallow layer of water for all or part of the year

Sheltered waters rich with nutrients provide great habitats

help control flooding

3 main types: bogs, marshes and swamps

Florida Everglades largest


C. Ponds and Lakes

Form when water collects in hollows and low-lying land areas

Ponds-shallow lake where sunlight reaches the bottom

Lake-large body of water; usually deep; formed in depressions like craters, glacial deposits or from dams (reservoirs)

Turnover-seasonal mixing of bottom and top layers that refresh nutrients

Eutrophication-nutrient build-up causes algae to overgrow


D. Streams and Rivers

  • Runoff-water that flows over the ground. Several factors affect this flow.
    • Type of surface
    • Rate of rainfall
    • Slope of the land
2 river systems
2. River Systems




A river system consists of a river and all of its tributaries.

The drainage basin of a river system is all the land that is drained by the river and its tributaries. This is also called a watershed . There are many but we live in the largest. It is the Mississippi River Basin

important definitions
Important Definitions

River System

  • ____________ – a stream and all its tributaries
  • ________ – a smaller stream that empties into a larger stream
  • _________ – the land area drained by a river system
  • ______ – a high point that separates river systems




river channels and drainage
River Channels and Drainage

There are different types of river channel patterns and river drainage patterns.

  • Dendritic
  • Radial
  • Rectangular
  • Trellis

Radial network

Radial- streams flow outward from a cone-shaped mountain, and make a pattern resembling spokes on a wheel.


Rectangular streams join each other at right angles because of a rectangular grid of fractures that breaks up the ground


Trellis-A system that develops across a landscape of parallel valleys and ridges so that major tributaries flow down the valleys and join a trunk that cuts through the ridge; the resulting map pattern resembles a garden trellis.


3. Rivers Shape the Land

  • a. River speed is a factor that can be determined by the:
    • Steepness of a slope
    • The channel it flows through (this creates friction)
    • Volume of water



Silt and clay

Bed load: sand, gravel,

pebbles and boulders

Materials carried in solution cannot be seen.

b. Rivers wear down Earth’s surface and erode and deposit materials like sediments. A river may carry materials in solution, in suspension, and in its bed load.



  • 1.________ – wearing away of materials
  • 2.__________ – soil and rock are left behind
  • 3._________ – rock and soil picked up and dropped in erosion and deposition



4. A stream can carry its load in three different ways:
  • ________ – material is dissolved
  • __________ – particles are held up by stream’s moving water
  • _________ – material pushed or rolled along the stream’s channel



bed load


c. The speed of a river determines what drops out of the water to create different landforms. These landforms can be:

1. Canyons

deposit formed when a stream spreads out onto a less steep area like at the base of a mountain

5. Alluvial Fan

____________ – deposit formed when a stream spreads out onto a less steep area like at the base of a mountain

Write the definition down!


4. Profile of a River

  • Headwaters-Beginning or river source; fast water and narrow canyons
  • Downriver-slope less steep; tributaries increase water volume; channel is wider and deeper because of erosion

c. Flood Plain-broad, flat area that has other river features

    • Meanders-looping curves
    • Oxbow lakes-crescents of land cut off from the main river
  • d. Mouth- Point where the river flows into another body of water (deltas, alluvial fans)

Oxbow lake



river valleys
River Valleys

Surface Water

Youthful rivers form steep-sided canyons and V-shaped valleys. The lowest level to which a river can erode its bed is called its base level.

Rapids can form as a river runs down a deep slope, while a river that plunges over a cliff forms a waterfall.

stream stages



Fast-moving water

Steep slope


Broad floodplain


Oxbow lakes

Meander Scars

Stream Stages




River Systems




5 floodplains and floods
5. Floodplains and Floods

Valley wall

Back swamp

Oxbow lake


Natural levees

Yazoo tributary


A river that has cut down close to its base level tends to erode the sides of its valley, forming a meandering river in a wide flood plain.


Floodsoccur when the volume of water in a river increases and overflows its channels.

River floods are natural events that can have constructive as well as destructive effects. They destroy habitats and homes but they leave behind land rich in nutrients.

People have developed different methods to control and prevent river flooding. One is a man-made dam called a levee


Mississippi River Flood

1993 Before and After

vocabulary review
Vocabulary Review
  • Flood: The phenomenon whereby a river overflows its banks.
  • Flood plain:A wide, level area that borders a river and is covered by its water during a flood.
  • Meander: Broad: looping bends in a river.
  • Oxbow lake:A crescent-shaped body of water formed when sediments deposited by a river cut off a meander from the river.
  • Natural levees:Elevated ridges along a river’s bank that are formed by the deposition of the river’s sediment load.
  • Flash flood:A sudden flood, usually caused by intense, heavy rainfall.