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Earth’s Layers & Rocks & Minerals. By: Brianna Shields January 27, 2005. DO NOW. 1. Name one “force” that is absent in the middle of outer space. 2. Name the “force” that causes the objects in space to move forward in a straight line.

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earth s layers rocks minerals

Earth’s Layers &Rocks & Minerals

By:

Brianna Shields

January 27, 2005

do now
DO NOW
  • 1. Name one “force” that is absent in the middle of outer space.
  • 2. Name the “force” that causes the objects in space to move forward in a straight line.
  • 3. Why do meteors burn as they approach earth’s surface?
slide3
GOAL
  • To draw and label the layers of the Earth
  • To learn how to identify different rocks and minerals by describing their characteristics
the spheres or layers
Lithosphere

Solid, rock, minerals and soil layer of the Earth

The “Spheres” or Layers
the spheres or layers1
Hydrosphere

Liquid part of the earth’s surface

Oceans, rivers, lakes

The “Spheres” or Layers
the spheres or layers2
Atmosphere

Layers of gas that surround the earth

The “Spheres” or Layers
slide8
What is it like inside the Earth?
  • What layers are there?
the lithosphere
Earth’s inner layers

1. Crust- loose rock on surface

The lithosphere
the lithosphere1
Earth’s inner layers

2. Mantle- flexible, dense, molten rock

The lithosphere
the lithosphere2
Earth’s inner layers

3. Outer core- liquid metal, magnetic

The lithosphere
the lithosphere3
Earth’s inner layers

4. Inner core- solid metal

High pressure due to gravity

Liquid particles squeezed

Extreme heat

The lithosphere
the lithosphere4
Earth’s inner layers

Why are the layers in this order?

Ordered: Most dense (core) on bottom, to least dense (crust) floating on top

The lithosphere
the atmosphere
Earth’s atmosphere

Made up of

78% Nitrogen

21% Oxygen

.03% Carbon dioxide

.01% Hydrogen

The atmosphere
the atmosphere1
Earth’s atmosphere

Layers (outer to inner)

A. Exosphere

B. Thermosphere/Ionosphere

C. Mesosphere

The atmosphere
the atmosphere2
Earth’s atmosphere

Layers (outer to inner)

D. Stratosphere- ozone here blocks UV radiation that causes skin cancer

The atmosphere
the atmosphere3
Earth’s atmosphere

Layers (outer to inner)

E. Troposphere- weather occurs

The atmosphere
the atmosphere4
Earth’s atmosphere

Trends: farther from earth-

Atm pressure decreases

Temp. decreases

The atmosphere
the atmosphere5
Earth’s atmosphere

Problems:

Greenhouse effect

Ozone depletion

The atmosphere
the atmosphere6
Problems with Earth’s atmosphere

A. Greenhouse Effext

Excess pollution (carbon dioxide) from burning fossil fuels forms blanket around Earth

Allows sunlight through, but traps heat

Causes global warming

The atmosphere
the atmosphere7
Problems with Earth’s atmosphere

B. Ozone depletion

CFC’s used in refrigerants and aerosol cans break down this layer

Allows harmful uv rays to reach Earth

The atmosphere
the lithosphere rocks vs minerals
Rock

Hard substance made of one or more minerals

The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals
the lithosphere rocks vs minerals1
Mineral

Occurs in nature

Solid

Definite chemical structure

Crystal shape

The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals
the lithosphere rocks vs minerals2
Color

DEF: observed coloration

DETERMINED BY:

Look at mineral

Not always reliable

The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals
the lithosphere rocks vs minerals3
Luster

DEF: way it reflects light off its surface

DETERMINED BY:

Observe mineral

Metallic or nonmetallic

The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals
the lithosphere rocks vs minerals4
Hardness

DEF: ability to resist being scratched

DETERMINED BY:

Rub against other minerals on hardness scale

Rub on glass, steel nail or penny

The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals
the lithosphere rocks vs minerals5
Streak

DEF: color of powder scraped off

DETERMINED BY:

Rub on a porcelain tile

The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals
the lithosphere rocks vs minerals6
Density

Click here for Density Simulator

DEF: number of particles in a space

DETERMINED BY:

Mass / volume

Never changes for a mineral

The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals
the lithosphere rocks vs minerals7
Crystal Shape

DEF: shape of atoms in mineral when formed

DETERMINED BY:

Look at small bits of mineral

The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals
the lithosphere rocks vs minerals8
Cleavage or Fracture

DEF: how mineral breaks (layers, jagged, smooth)

DETERMINED BY:

Break mineral (hammer or hands)

The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals