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Chapter 5

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  1. Chapter 5 Basic Organization Designs 基礎組織設計

  2. Organization Design and Structure • Organization design組織設計 • A process in which managers develop or change their organization’s structure • Work specialization工作專業化 • A component of organization structure that involves having each discrete step of a job done by a different individual rather than having one individual do the whole job整個工作並不是由個人單獨完成,而是將其分解成許多步驟,每一單一個人只負責一個步驟。 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  3. Economies and Diseconomies of Work Specialization EXHIBIT 5.1 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  4. Organizational Structure: Control • Chain of command指揮鍊 • The management principle that no person should report to more than one boss一個部屬應該只對一個而且只能有一個直屬的上司負責 • Span of control控制幅度 • The number of subordinates a manager can direct efficiently and effectively一位管理者可以有效率及有效地管理員工數目 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  5. Organizational Structure: Control (cont’d) • Authority職權 • The rights inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect them to be obeyed在一個管理職位上所擁有的權利,使其可發號命令並預期號令會被遵守。 • Responsibility責任 • An obligation to perform assigned activities被賦予一定的權利,同時他也必須負起相當的義務去執行。 • Power權力 • An individual’s capacity to influence decisions一個人影響決策的能耐 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  6. Types of Organizational Authority • Line authority直線職權 • The position authority (given and defined by the organization) that entitles a manager to direct the work of operative employees指賦予經理人指揮其部屬工作的職權 • Staff authority幕僚職權 • Positions that have some authority (e.g., organization policy enforcement) but that are created to support, assist, and advise the holders of line authority支援、協助以及減輕直線經理人原先的資訊負擔 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  7. Chain of Command EXHIBIT 5.2 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  8. Line Versus Staff Authority EXHIBIT 5.3 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  9. Authority Versus Power A. Authority EXHIBIT 5.4a Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  10. Authority Versus Power (cont’d) EXHIBIT 5.4b Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  11. Types of Power Coercive powerPower based on fear. 強制權力 Reward powerPower based on the ability to distribute獎賞權力something that others value. Legitimate power Power based on one’s position in the法制權力 formal hierarchy. Expert power Power based on one’s expertise, 專家權力 special skill, or knowledge. Referent power Power based on identification with a參考權力 person who has desirable resources orpersonal traits.欽羡的資源或個人特質 EXHIBIT 5.5 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  12. Centralization And Decentralization • Centralization集權 • A function of how much decision-making authority is pushed down to lower levels in an organization; the more centralized an organization, the higher the level at which decisions are made • Decentralization分權 • The pushing down of decision-making authority to the lowest levels of an organization Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  13. Departmentalization部門化 • Functional功能departmentalization • The grouping of activities by functions performed • Product產品departmentalization • The grouping of activities by product produced • Customer顧客departmentalization • The grouping of activities by common customers • Geographic地理departmentalization • The grouping of activities by territory • Process程序departmentalization • The grouping of activities by work or customer flow Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  14. Mechanistic and Organic Organizations • Mechanistic 機械式organization • The bureaucracy; a structure that is high in specialization, formalization, and centralization • Organic 有機式organization • An adhocracy; a structure that is low in specialization, formalization, and centralization Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  15. Rigid hierarchical relationships Fixed duties Many rules Formalized communication channels Centralized decision authority Taller structures Collaboration (both vertical and horizontal) Adaptable duties Few rules Informal communication Decentralized decision authority Flatter structures Mechanistic versus Organic Organizations EXHIBIT 5.7 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  16. 機械式和有機式組織 • 圖5-11 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  17. Structure follows影響結構的因素 • Strategy • Organization Size • Technology • Environment • 策略 • 組織規模 • 科技 • 環境 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  18. Technology and Structure • Unit production • Production in terms of units or small batches • Mass production • Production in terms of large batch manufacturing • Process production • Production in terms of continuous processing Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  19. Organization Design Applications • Simple 簡單structure • An organization that is low in specialization and formalization but high in centralization Bureaucracy科層體制 • Functional 功能 structure • An organization in which similar and related occupational specialties are grouped together • Divisional 事業部 structure • An organization made up of self-contained units Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  20. Functional Structure EXHIBIT 5.8 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  21. Divisional Structure EXHIBIT 5.9 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  22. Other Organizational Structures • Matrix矩陣式 structure • An organization in which specialists from functional departments are assigned to work on one or more projects led by a project manager • Team-based以團隊為基礎 structure • An organization that consists entirely of work groups or teams • Boundaryless 無疆界organization • An organization that is not defined or limited by boundaries or categories imposed by traditional structures Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  23. Sample Matrix Structure EXHIBIT 5.10 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  24. Learning 學習型Organization • An organization that has developed the capacity to continuously adapt and change because all members take an active role in identifying and resolving work-related issues. • Organization design • Information sharing • Leadership • Organizational culture Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  25. Characteristics of a Learning Organization EXHIBIT 5.11 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  26. Organization Culture組織文化 A system of shared meaning within an organization that determines, to a large degree, how employees act • Shared values are shown in cultural elements: • Stories, rituals, material symbols, and language unique to the organization • Results from the interaction between: • The founders’ biases and assumptions • What the first employees learn subsequently from their own experiences. Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  27. Member identity Group emphasis People focus Unit integration Control Risk tolerance Reward criteria Conflict tolerance Means-end orientation Open-systems focus Ten Characteristics of Organization Culture EXHIBIT 5.12 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  28. Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006

  29. Homework 3 組織架構與用人 一、組識架構 • 畫出個案組織之架構圖 • 討論該組織設計之特性(如:部門畫分方式,Mechanistic Vs. Organic之特性等) 二、用人 • 模擬該組織需求某一種工作職缺,並列出其工作說明(Job description) • 訂定該職缺之工作規範(Job specification) • 決定招募來源(Recruiting sources) • 決定甄選(Selection)方式與歩驟 • 討論您們的甄選方式與歩驟之信度(Reliability)及效度(validity)為何 繳交時間地點:11/17(第九週週五)16:30前至30624研究室 Management─ Foundations of Organization Design 吳明泉博士 2006