Chapter 5 By: Genevie Lopez
Vocabulary • Biomes- Terrestrial, regions inhabited by certain types of life • Desert –Biome in which evaporation exceeds precipitation • Forest- Biome with enough annual precipitation to support the growth of the species. • Grasslands- Biome found in regions where moderate average precipitation • Greenhouse Effect- Natural effect that releases heat in the atmosphere. • Greenhouse Gasses- gas in the Earths lower atmosphere that causes greenhouse effect. • Monsoons- Periods of heavy rains experienced on continents lying north or south of the warm ocean. • Permafrost- potentially frozen layer of the soil that forms when the water there freezes • Weather- Short-term changes in the temp, pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunshine, cloud cover, wind direction and speed.
What factors influence the earth’s climate? -Latitude and elevation have effects on climate. -Solar radiation reaching the area -Air circulation over the earth's fattest part -Seasonal changes in the temperature and precipitation -Rotation of the earth on its axis -Prevailing winds
How does climate determine where the earth’s major biomes are found? - Different climates support different communities of organisms. -Over the past 4.7 billion years the earths climates has changed drastically causing change the locations and nature of the earth’s biomes.
What are the major types of desert biomes? • Tropical deserts- They have few plants it is hot and dry most of the year. Temperate deserts- Have high daytime temperatures in the summer and low in the winter. • Cold deserts-Winters are cold summers are warm or hot and precipitation is low.
What are the major types of grassland biomes? • Prairies- Mostly in the interiors of continents in areas too moist for deserts and too dry for forests. • Tropical Grasslands:Savannas- are tropical grasslands with scatter trees and usually year-round warm temperatures. • Temperate Grasslands: Fertile Soils- majorly used for growing cropping and grazing cattle with cold winter and hot dry summers. • Polar Grasslands: Arctic Tundra- lie south of the arctic polar ice cap. They are covered with ice and snow except during its brief summers. • Temperate scrublands : Chaparral- Has a moderate climate but its dense thickets of spiny shrubs are suspect to periodic fires.
What are the major types of forest and mountain biomes? • Tropical rain forest- have heavy rainfall and rich diversity of species occupying a variety of specialized in distinct areas. • Temperate deciduous forests- Most of the trees in these forests survive winter by dropping their leaves, which decay and produce a nutrient rich soil. • Evergreen coniferous forests- consists mostly of cone-bearing evergreen trees that keep their needles year round to help the trees survive long winters. • Temperate rain forests- in coastal areas and has ample rainfall and moisture .
How have human activities affected the world’s desert, grassland, forest and mountain biomes? • Human activities have damaged or disturbed to some extent more than half of the world’s terrestrial ecosystems. • Ecologists Estimate that we use, waste or destroy about 10-55% of the net primary productivity of the earth’s terrestrial ecosystems.