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Treaty of Versailles and WWI Treaties. Objectives : 1) Demonstrate an understanding of the similarities and differences between the Treaty of Versailles and the Fourteen Points. 2) Assess the Treaty of Versailles and draw conclusions about the positive and negative aspects of the treaty.
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Treaty of Versailles and WWI Treaties Objectives: 1) Demonstrate an understanding of the similarities and differences between the Treaty of Versailles and the Fourteen Points. 2) Assess the Treaty of Versailles and draw conclusions about the positive and negative aspects of the treaty.
Paris Peace Conference: What were Goals of Major Powers? • France: • # 1: SECURITY against Germany (Rhineland) • #2: Reparations • #3: Alsace-Lorraine • Great Britain: • Prime Min: Allow German recovery • Citizens “Make Germany Pay” • Italy: Adriatic Coast • US: Fourteen Points • Collective security George, Orlando, Clemenceau, Wilson
Similarities: Fourteen Points and Paris Peace Conference Treaties • Alsace-Lorraine to France • League of Nations • Promote International Cooperation • Maintain Peace (settle disputes & reduce arms) • Independence / Self-determination for Poland and some others… • Dardanelles: Turkish but controlled by international commission
Contrasts: Fourteen Points and Paris Peace Conference Treaties • British vetoed Freedom of Seas • Readjustment of Colonial Claims & Self-determination • War Guilt Clause • Massive Reparations (impossible to repay?) • $30 Billion • = 2.7 TRILLION today • Even for Pensions of widows of Allied soldiers • Lost imperialists territories • Severe limits on German military: • no conscription / army < 100,000 • no u-boats / only 6 war ships • destroy airforce & heavy artillery
United States Response • Woodrow Wilson: • Disappointment in “peace of vengeance” • But hope for League of Nations • U.S. Senate: • Voted NOT to join League of Nations • League fails: WWII less than 20 years later... • Ratified separate treaty later on… • New Recognition of American Power
DISCUSSION:What do you think of the Treaty of Versailles and the other WWI treaties?
The Road to WWII... • Germany • German leaders had No Say in Treaty • Bitterness over Guilt Clause and Reparations • Economy unable to recover • E. Prussia cut off (Nationalities problem) • Italy • Heavily in Debt • Increasing Unemployment & Unrest Hitler Mussolini
CLOSURE Questions • What were the biggest mistakes of the Treaty of Versailles? • What positive aspects do you see in the treaty? • Name two comparisons and two contrasts between the Fourteen Points and the Treaty of Versailles. • Why are these ideas relevant to us today?