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COP1220/CGS2423 Introduction to C++/ C for Engineers. Professor: Dr. Miguel Alonso Jr. Fall 2008. Outline. Why Program? Computer Systems: Hardware and Software Programs and Programming Languages What is a Program Made of? Input, Processing, and Output The Programming Process

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cop1220 cgs2423 introduction to c c for engineers

COP1220/CGS2423Introduction to C++/C for Engineers

Professor: Dr. Miguel Alonso Jr.

Fall 2008

outline
Outline
  • Why Program?
  • Computer Systems: Hardware and Software
  • Programs and Programming Languages
  • What is a Program Made of?
  • Input, Processing, and Output
  • The Programming Process
  • Procedural and Object-Oriented Programming
why program
Why Program?
  • What does a computer do?
  • It is useful because it can be programmed, or told to do many different tasks.
  • They are tools that make almost every profession easier to do.
  • A computer is a machine specifically designed to follow instructions.
why program1
Why Program?
  • Programs are called software, or a set of instructions that tells a computer what to do.
  • Programs in the real world consist of the following:
    • Logical flow of instructions
    • Mathematical procedures
    • Appearance on the screen
    • The way the information is presented to the user
    • The programs “user-friendliness”
    • Manuals and other written documentation
computer systems hardware and software
Computer Systems: Hardware and Software

Starting out with C++, Pearson, (2006)

computer systems hardware and software1
Computer Systems: Hardware and Software

Starting out with C++, Pearson, (2006)

computer systems hardware and software2
Computer Systems: Hardware and Software
  • CPU: Controls the computer’s operations and performs arithmetic functions
  • Main Memory: Random Access Memory, or RAM, is the part of a computer that temporarily holds or stores information
  • Consists of cells and bits (a “switch” that can be a 0 or 1
  • Each Cell has 8 bits, or a byte.
  • Each cell is assigned a location number called an address.
other devices
Other Devices
  • Secondary Storage: Hard Disk, USB Stick
  • Input Devices: Any devices that help the computer collect information from the outside world
  • Output Devices: Devices that presents the computer’s information to the outside world.
software
Software
  • Generally two categories of software in a computer:
    • Operating system
    • Application Software
  • Single Tasking
  • Multi-Tasking
  • Single-User
  • Multi-User
programs and programming languages
Programs and Programming Languages
  • Computer Program: Set of instructions that tells a computer how to solve a problem or perform a task
  • Algorithm: A set of well defined steps for performing a task or solving a problem
  • A computer only understands 0’s and 1’s
  • Programming Languages were invented to ease the task of programming
  • Examples of Languages: C/C++, C#, JAVA
programming languages
Programming Languages
  • Low Level vs High Level
  • Your very first program!
lines statements and variables
Lines, Statements, and Variables
  • Line: single line as it appears in the body of the program (can be empty)
  • Statement: complete instruction that causes the computer to perform an action
  • Variable: named storage location in the computers memory for holding a piece of information. Usually stored in RAM.
  • Variable definition/declaration
    • Not the same thing!
  • There are generally two types of variables: numbers and characters.
    • Number: used to compute
    • Characters: used for display