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A Survey of software-defined networking: past, present, and future of programmable networks. Marc Mendonca , Bruno Astuto A. Nunes , Xuan -Nam Nguyen, Katia Obraczka , Thierry Turletti. Presented by Xuzi Zhou. Outline. Introduction Early Programmable Networks

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a survey of software defined networking past present and future of programmable networks

A Survey of software-defined networking:past, present, and future of programmable networks

Marc Mendonca,

Bruno Astuto A. Nunes,

Xuan-Nam Nguyen,

Katia Obraczka,

Thierry Turletti

Presented by Xuzi Zhou

outline
Outline

Introduction

Early Programmable Networks

Software-Defined Networking Architecture

SDN Development Tools

SDN Applications

Future Directions

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

introduction
Introduction

Complex

Hard to configure and manage

Internet is “too big to change”

Challenges in Computer Networks

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

introduction1
Introduction

Control plane

Software-based controllers

Data plane

Programmable packet forwarding devices

Software-Defined Networking

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

outline1
Outline

Introduction

Early Programmable Networks

Software-Defined Networking Architecture

SDN Development Tools

SDN Applications

Future Directions

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

early programmable networks
Early programmable networks

Started in 1995

“Making ATM, Internet and mobile networks more open, extensible, and programmable”

Separation between communication hardware and control software was challenging

Closed nature of routers and switches

General Switch Management Protocol (GSMP)

Establish and release connections across the switch

Manage switch ports

Request configuration information

Reserve switch resources

Request statistics

1. Open Signaling (OPENSIG)

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

early programmable networks1
Early programmable networks

Started in mid 1990s

Two approaches:

User-programmable switches with extra management channels

Using capsules, which are program fragments that could be interpreted and executed by routers

Not popular due to practical security and performance concerns

2. Active Networking

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

early programmable networks2
Early programmable networks

Devolved Control of ATM Networks (DCAN)

Started in mid 1990s

Infrastructure for scalable control and management of ATM networks

Similar concept as SDN:

Decouple control and management functions from devices

3. DCAN

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

early programmable networks3
Early programmable networks

Started in 2004

Emphasize separation between the routing decision logic and networking protocols

“Decision” plane

“Dissemination and Discovery” plane

Provide global view of the network

“Data” plane

4. 4D Project

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

early programmable networks4
Early programmable networks

Started in 2006

A management protocol for modifying the configuration of network devices

Open API for sending and retrieving extensible configuration data

Simplify device configuration

5. NETCONF

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

early programmable networks5
Early programmable networks

Started in 2006

Predecessor to OpenFlow

A network architecture for enterprise networks

Use a centralized controller to manage policy and security in a network

6. Ethane

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

outline2
Outline

Introduction

Early Programmable Networks

Software-Defined Networking Architecture

SDN Development Tools

SDN Applications

Future Directions

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn architecture
SDN Architecture

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn architecture1
SDN Architecture

Control Element (CE)

Forwarding Element (FE)

Logical Function Block (LFB)

Reside on the FEs

Controlled by Ces

Enable CEs to control the Fes’ configuration

Process packets on data plane

CE and FE are kept within close proximity

e.g. Same box or room

Current Architectures:

Forwarding and Control Element Seperaration (ForCES)

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn architecture2
SDN Architecture

OpenFlow Switch (forwarding device)

Maintain flow tables with flow entries

Match fields: The “ID” of a flow(e.g. IP addr, port#, etc.)

Counters: flow statistics

Actions: how to handle matching packets

Packets with no matching as “table-miss” flow

Drop

Continue matching in next flow table

Forward to the controller

OpenFlow Controller

Add, update, or delete flow entries from the switch’s flow tables (reactively or proactively)

Current Architectures:

OpenFlow

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn architecture3
SDN Architecture

Pure OpenFlow switches

Completely rely on a controller for forwarding decisions

Hybrid OpenFlow switches

Have traditional on-board control

Support OpenFlow

Forwarding Devices

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn architecture4
SDN Architecture

The Controller

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn architecture5
SDN Architecture

OpenFlow design options:

Centralized vs Distributed

Single controller = single point of failure

OpenFlow allows a switch to connect multiple controllers

Controller-to-controller communication

Control granularity

Per-flow control

Large overhead

Aggregated flow control

e.g. source, destination, application, or any combination

The Controller

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn architecture6
SDN Architecture

OpenFlow design options (cont.)

Reactive vs Proactive Policies

Reactive

Query the controller when no action available for a new flow

Cause delay, especially for short flows

Proactive

Controllers push policies to switches

Lower communication cost

The Controller

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn architecture7
SDN Architecture

Controller Interfaces

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn architecture8
SDN Architecture

Controller-Switch Communication

Between the controller and the switch

OpenFlow has NOT yet specify:

Communication security

Access control for multiple controllers

Controller-Service Communication

Network information extraction

Inter-controller communication

NO existing standard

Controller Interfaces

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

outline3
Outline

Introduction

Early Programmable Networks

Software-Defined Networking Architecture

SDN Development Tools

SDN Applications

Future Directions

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn development tools
SDN Development tools

Mininet

Emulate an OpenFlow network on a single machine

Support OpenFlow v1.0

ns-3

Only OpenFlow v0.89 implemented

1. Emulation and Simulation Tools

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn development tools1
SDN Development tools

2. Available Software Switch Platforms

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn development tools2
SDN Development tools

3. Native SDN Switches

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn development tools3
SDN Development tools

4. Available Controller Platforms

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn development tools4
SDN Development tools

NICE: automated testing tool through model checking and symbolic execution

Anteater: check network invariants, such as connectivity or consistency

VeriFlow: real-time rule verification

OFRewind: record and reproduce network events (control and data)

ndb: implement breakpoints and packet-backtraces

STS: troubleshooting simulator

5. Code Verification and Debugging

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

outline4
Outline

Introduction

Early Programmable Networks

Software-Defined Networking Architecture

SDN Development Tools

SDN Applications

Future Directions

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn applications
SDN Applications

Enterprise networks:

Large in size

Strict security and performance

Enterprise environments differ a lot

SDN:

Programmatically enforce and adjust network policies

Monitor network activity

Replace middleboxes with the SDN controller

1. Enterprise Networks

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn applications1
SDN Applications

Data Centers:

Careful traffic management

Policy enforcement

Energy management

SDN:

Manage energy consumption by keeping only the minimum-power network subset

Cost of reactive control over all flows is high

Add efficient measurement component

Reactive control over large flows only

2. Data Centers

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn applications2
SDN Applications

Large-scale cellular and WiFi networks

OpenRoads: manage mobile device handover events across different wireless infrastructures from various providers

Odin: enable proactive mobility management and load balancing in enterprise wireless LAN environments

Programmable wireless data plane:

OpenRadio: process traffic subsets using different protocols according to performance requirements and time deadlines

e.g. WiFi, WiMAX, LTE, etc.

3. Infrastructure-based Wireless Access Network

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

sdn applications3
SDN Applications

Home network gateway:

As a controller

Add measurement facilities to serve troubleshooting

Provide view of network utilization to users

Add Anomaly Detection System (ADS) to accurately identify malicious activities

As a forwarding device

Outsourcing home network management to external third-party experts

4. Homeand Small Business

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

outline5
Outline

Introduction

Early Programmable Networks

Software-Defined Networking Architecture

SDN Development Tools

SDN Applications

Future Directions

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

future directions
Future Directions

To handle the challenges of scalability, performance, robustness, and security.

DIFANE: proactively push flow entries to the switches

Devoflow: offload the control of short flows to the switches.

FLARE: “deeply programmable” data plane, control plane, and the interface between them.

Onix, Kando, HyperFlow: physically distribute the logically-centralized controller.

Other thought:

Controller placement

Adding the measurement plane

1. Controller and Switch Design

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

future directions1
Future Directions

Logically distributed control plane for Internet

Each autonomous system (AS) is controlled independently by its own controller

Separate control of inter-domain and intra-domain components

2. Software-Defined Internetworking

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

future directions2
Future Directions

No existing standard for interactions between controllers and network services or applications.

Requirements for the controller API:

Access the underlying hardware

Interact with other applications

Utilize system services

Some thought:

Use a network configuration language to express policies

Allow different policies on the same flow

3. Controller-Service Interaction

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

future directions3
Future Directions

Use SDN’s control model to address challenges, such as rapid provisioning, efficient resource management, and scalability

Virtualized network resources (slices) on top of physical networks which can be controlled by different controllers

Efficient migration of virtual machines and automatic configuration

Manage resources in cloud data centers

4. Virtualization and Cloud Services

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

future directions4
Future Directions

Use SDN’s control model to address the separation between information processing and forwarding in Information-Centric Networking (ICN)

5. Information-Centric Networking

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

future directions5
Future Directions

Potential extension of SDN from infrastructure-based networks to self-organizing networks

e.g. mobile ad-hoc networks, vehicular networks, etc.

6. Heterogeneous Network Support

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation

thank you
Thank you

CS 685 Fall 2013 Paper Presentation