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Chapter 2 An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology. One-Dimensional vs. Multidimensional Models. One-Dimensional Models (single Paradigm) A conceptual approach Could mean an emphasis on a specific cause of abnormal behavior Problems occur when information from other areas is ignored

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Chapter 2 An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology


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    1. Chapter 2An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology

    2. One-Dimensional vs. Multidimensional Models • One-Dimensional Models (single Paradigm) • A conceptual approach • Could mean an emphasis on a specific cause of abnormal behavior • Problems occur when information from other areas is ignored • Multidimensional Models (draws from multiple paradigms) • Interdisciplinary, eclectic, and integrative • “System” of influences that cause and maintain suffering • Draws upon information from several sources • View abnormal behavior as multiply determined

    3. Multidimensional Models of Abnormal Behavior • Biological Factors (genetics, physiology, neurobiology) • Learning Factors (conditioning, modeling) • Emotional Factors • Cognitive Factors • Social Factors • Cultural Factors

    4. Multidimensional Models of Abnormal Behavior (cont.) Figure 2.1 Judy’s case one-dimensional or multidimensional models

    5. Genetic Contributions to Psychopathology • Biological Paradigm • Phenotype vs. genotype

    6. The Interaction of Genetic and Environmental Effects • Gene-Environment Interactions • The Diathesis-Stress Model • Predisposition • Stress

    7. Ways to study Behavioral Genetics • Family Method • Index cases • Twin Studies • DZ • MZ • Adoptees Method

    8. Neuroscience Contributions to Psychopathology • The Field of Neuroscience • The role of the nervous system in disease and behavior • The Central Nervous System (CNS) • Brain and spinal cord • The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) • Somatic and autonomic branches

    9. Neuroscience Contributions to Psychopathology (cont.) Figure 2.4 Divisions of the nervous system (from Goldstein, 1994)

    10. Neuroscience and the Central Nervous System • The Neuron • Soma – Cell body • Dendrites – Branches that receive messages from other neurons • Axon – Trunk of neuron that sends messages to other neurons • Axon terminals – Buds at end of axon from which chemical messages are sent • Synapses – Small gaps that separate neurons • Neurons Function Electrically, but Communicate Chemically • Neurotransmitters are the chemical messengers

    11. Neuroscience and the Central Nervous System (cont.) Figure 2.5 Transmission of information from one neuron to another

    12. Neuroscience: Functions of MainTypes of Neurotransmitters • Functions of Neurotransmitters • Agonists • Antagonists

    13. Neuroscience: Functions of MainTypes of Neurotransmitters • Main Types and Functions of Neurotransmitters • Serotonin (SSRIs & St. John’s wort) - • Regulates behaviors, moods, thoughts • Tx Depression by ^ serotonin • Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and benzodiazepines • Reduces postsynaptic activity, which inhibits behavior and emotions • Tx Anxiety by ^ GABA • Norepinephrine and beta blockers • Tx block receptors of norepinephrine reduces Arousal & anxiety • Dopamine • Tx Schizophrenia by blocking receptors (lowers Dop)

    14. Neuroscience: Functions of MainTypes of Neurotransmitters (cont.) Figure 2.11 Manipulating serotonin in the brain

    15. Neuroscience and the Divisions of the Brain • Hindbrain • Medulla – Heart rate, blood pressure, respiration • Pons – Regulates sleep stages • Cerebellum – Involved in physical coordination • Midbrain • Coordinates movement with sensory input • Contains parts of the reticular activating system (RAS)

    16. Neuroscience and the Brain Structure • Limbic System • Thalamus – Receives and integrates sensory information • Hypothalamus – Controls eating, drinking, aggression, sexual activity • Regulates emotions and expressions

    17. Neuroscience and the Divisions of the Brain Forebrain (Cerebral Cortex) • Location of most sensory, emotional, and cognitive processing • Two specialized hemispheres (left and right) joined by the corpus callosum

    18. Neuroscience and the Brain Structure • Lobes of Cerebral Cortex • Frontal – Thinking and reasoning abilities, memory • Parietal – Touch recognition • Occipital – Integrates visual input • Temporal – Recognition of sounds and long-term memory storage

    19. Neuroscience: Peripheral Nervous and Endocrine Systems • Somatic Branch of PNS • Controls voluntary muscles and movement • Autonomic Branch of the PNS • Sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS • Regulates cardiovascular system & body temperature • Also regulates the endocrine system and aids in digestion • The Endocrine System • Hormones

    20. Neuroscience: Peripheral Nervous andEndocrine Systems (cont.) Figure 2.9 Location of some of the major endocrine glands

    21. EVALUATING THE BIOLOGICAL PARADIGM • Biological researchers have made great progress in elucidating brain‑behavior relationships. • Biologically based research on both causes and treatment of psychopathology is proceeding at a rapid rate, as we will see when we discuss specific psychopathologies • Caution against reductionism • The whole is greater than the sum of its parts

    22. The Contributions of Behavioral and Cognitive Science • Conditioning and Cognitive Processes • Respondent and operant learning • Learned helplessness • Modeling and vicarious learning • Prepared learning • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy • Beck • Cognitive distortions • Ellis • Irrational beliefs

    23. EVALUATING THE COGNITIVE PARADIGM • Interventions based on cognitive theories have received more empirical research support than any other intervention. • Cognitive explanations of psychopathology tend to focus more on current determinants of a disorder and less on its cause.

    24. The Role of Emotion in Psychopathology • The Nature of Emotion • To motivate us • Action tendency different from affect and mood • Intimately tied with several forms of psychopathology • Components of Emotion • Behavior, physiology, and cognition • Example of fear • Harmful Side of Emotional Dysregulation

    25. The Role of Emotion in Psychopathology (cont.) Figure 2.15 Emotion has three important and overlapping components: behavior, cognition, and physiology

    26. Cultural and Social Factors in Psychopathology • Cultural Factors • Influence the form and expression of normal and abnormal behavior • Gender Effects • Exerts a strong and puzzling effect on psychopathology • Social Relationships • Frequency and quality related to mortality, disease, and psychopathology • Stigma

    27. Life-Span and DevelopmentalInfluences Over Psychopathology • Life-Span Developmental Perspective • Addresses developmental changes • Such changes influence and constrain what is normal and abnormal • The Principle of Equifinality • Several paths to a given outcome • Paths may operate differentially at different developmental stages

    28. Summary of the MultidimensionalPerspective of Psychopathology • Multiple Causation • Is the rule, not the exception in explaining normal and abnormal behavior • Take a Broad, Comprehensive, Systemic Perspective • Addressing biological, psychological, social, cultural, and developmental factors • Useful in Understanding the Causes of Psychopathology and its Alleviation