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Nouns name… • People • Common nouns: girl, student, lifeguard • Proper nouns: Mrs. Neeley, Ted, President Bush, Otis Boggart • Singular: ballerina, army, Mr. Peabody • Plural: toads, oxen, sisters-in-law, armies • Collective: family, committee, teams (pl.)
Nouns name… • Places • Common: auditorium, home, restaurant • Proper: Motel 6, Yellowstone Park, Disneyland, McKale Center Arena • Singular: city, mesa, plateau • Plural: deserts, forests, stadiums
Nouns name… • Things • Common: tissue, gelatin, marker, barouche • Proper: Kleenex, Jell-o, Sharpie • Singular: datum, thesaurus, die • Plural: data, thesauri, dice
Nouns name… • Qualities and ideas • Common: shyness, freedom, love, anger, pessimism, emptiness, wisdom, greenness • Proper: Christianity, Reaganomics, Stalinism
Nouns name… • Events • Common: county fair, dog show, summer solstice, parade, birthday • Proper: Christmas Day, Mardi Gras, Woodstock, Spring Fling
Nouns have number… • Singular:echo, donkey, knife, cello, tomato, octopus, mouse, policeman, cactus • Plural:echoes, donkeys, knives, cellos, tomatoes, octopi, mice, policemen, cacti • Collective singular: pack, gaggle, bevy, navy, band, group, police force • Collective plural: families, herds, dens, troops, armies
Nouns have gender… • masculine:brother, father, widower, emperor, stallion, comedian, groom • feminine:niece, hen, princess, aviatrix, soprano, comedienne, bride • neuter:book, owner, representative, singer, playwright
Nouns can be classified as… • Concrete: lasagne, sofa, baseball, iron, mitt • Concrete nouns name tangible objects that have form and dimension. • Abstract:heaven, fame, kindness, anxiety, pride, generosity, democracy, contentment, intelligence, imagination, thought • Abstract nouns name ideas, qualities, and conditions, and their definitions may vary from person to person.
Concrete nouns that seem abstract…. might actually be considered concrete: • dragon • fairies • gnomes • elf • the Tooth Fairy • trolls • Cinderella
The Compound Noun… • two (or more) separate words:dog bones, peace sign, angel food cake, chocolate chips, fire extinguisher, Grand Canyon • Two words joined to form one:mailbox, teapot, baseball, lighthouse, toothpaste • Two or more hyphenated words:motor-mouth, mother-in-law, jack-o-lantern
Nouns name…. person place thing quality or idea Nouns are… common proper Nouns have qualities: Number singular plural collective Gender masculine feminine neuter Grade 7 Review
Grade 7 Review • Nouns may be… • Concrete • Abstract • Some may seem abstract, but are actually considered concrete
Grade 7 Review • Some nouns are classified as compound… • written as a single word • written as two words • written as a hyphenated word
Grade 8 Review Noun-forming Suffixes Noun Usage and Case Gerunds
-ance attendance, appliance -ence reference, evidence -ion inspection, persuasion -ty, -ity loyalty, clarity -ment statement, pavement -ness goodness, shyness -al survival, revival -er rancher, singer -or actor, realtor -eer Musketeer, racketeer -ant, -ent contestant, resident -ism patriotism, communism -asm enthusiasm -ee trainee, referee -ist violinist, journalist -ship friendship, comradeship -hood neighborhood, parenthood -acy democracy, fallacy -ian librarian, libertarian Common Noun-forming Suffixes
Usage Issues • Not all words ending in these common noun-forming suffixes will be used as nouns in sentences. Usage must always be considered in identifying a word’s part of speech in context. In the sentences below, the –ment word government cannot be assumed to be a noun. Example: • Our government faces many challenges in combating poverty. Government is the subject of the sentence; it is used in this context as a noun. • A governmentprogram geared to combat poverty will take effect January 1. In this context, government is used as an adjective, modifying the noun program. What kind of program? A government program.
Nouns and Case • Case is that quality of a noun that shows its relation to some other word or words in the sentence. There are three cases: nominative, possessive, and objective.
Examples of Nominative Case Nouns may function as a: • Subject: Thecomputer has streamlined many business transactions • Subjective complement: The winner of the scholarship is Charlotte Davis. • Appositive(the appositive Jimmy Carter, the former president of takes the case of the noun the United States, works closely with it renames) Habitat for Humanity. The winner of the scholarship is Charlotte Davis, an eighth grade student at Sacred Heart School. • Direct address: Runners, take your marks! • Exclamation: Rats!The filthy rodents roamed the storm drains.
Examples of Objective Case • Direct object (receives The tailor sewed a button on the coat. the action of the verb) • Indirect object (to whom A DPS officer wrote the motorist a ticket or for whom something is for speeding. done) • Object of a prepositionFloyd hid Halloween candy under his bed. • Apposition Joe drove his car, a beat-up Volkswagen, across the country. The teacher awarded Leo, a highly motivated student, the Student of the Month trophy. Two children raced across the intersection, the busiestcorner in town.
Objective Case • Adverbial noun- a noun that The hiker walked miles before resting. noun that does the work of an This afternoon we will visit the mall. adverb telling: Amy left Tucson on an early flight. How much? We spent hoursworking on the project. How long? When? Where? How far? • Objective complement The committee appointed Terry chairman (completes the meaning of the group of the verb and refers to the direct object)
Possessive Case • Singular possessiveLois’s hair was dyed a strange shade orange. Sherry washed thebaby’s rattles and pacifiers. • Plural possessive The children’s playground was closed for repairs. The scouts’fund raiser earned enough money for summer camp. • Separate possession That judge will score Pete’s and Jim’s dives in the competition. • Joint possessionPhil and Martha’s dinner party was a huge success.