Tackling Low Educational Achievement . A report for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation With additional support from the Sutton Trust Robert Cassen (LSE) and Geeta Kingdon (IoE) www.jrf.org.uk. How big is the problem Who are the low achievers What accounts for low achievement
A report for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation
With additional support from the Sutton Trust
Robert Cassen (LSE) and Geeta Kingdon (IoE)
No passes No passes >D No passes Not 5 passes All KS4 E or M incl. E & M students
% 5.5 25.0 8.6 13.4
Numbers 32,000 144,000 50,000 77,000 577,000
% 4.7 24.6 9.3 12.2
Numbers 28,000 146,000 56,000 73,000 597,000
All 16-yr-olds in data-base: FSM 14%, EFL 90%, SEN 16%
-Other research shows the importance of the home learning environment: parenting and social and economic status affect pre-school children’s outcomes. Male-female gaps are apparent at very young ages.
- Poor reading and writing in primary school is common for low achievers, but especially for White British and Caribbean pupils, girls as well as boys.
- Looked-after children were less than 1% of KS4 students in 2006, but 24% of them had ‘No passes’, five times the average proportion, and 48%, four times the average, did not have ‘5 Passes including E & M’
- The main measure of disadvantage in our data is Free School Meals. FSM after other factors are allowed for has a stronger association with low achievement for White British students than other groups.
- But when we include census area data, we find the unemployment rate, the percentage of single-parent households and the percentage of parents with low educational qualifications, as measured in each student’s immediate area, all have statistically significant associations with low achievement at 16.
- Other studies show significant relations with social class; among OECD countries we have among the highest associations of social class with educational outcomes.
- Cognitive deficit at age 3 associated with low SES and with later low achievement (1970 birth cohort data)
- Language: professional-class child hears 1500 different words a day, manual-class child 500
- Boys’ deficits apparent in pre-school years
- Children of poor parents up to one year behind educationally at age 3 (Millennium cohort data, i.e. born in 2000)
- But evaluations suggest Sure Start may not be reaching the most disadvantaged.
Source: DfES data First language and SEN
Memo: 2007 Reading 84% (Girls 87%, Boys 81%) Writing No change
- Additional effect of going to poorer quality school relatively modest statistically for FSM pupils in general, but considerable for SEN pupils and ethnic minorities
- Parliamentary report in 2006 says whether a pupil gets support for special educational needs is a ‘postcode lottery’
- Government does not have detailed data on extent and quality of early-years child development
- Government has announced rolling out ‘Every Child a Reader’, but only to 4,000 children initially, reaching 30,000 in 2010
- league tables and selection
- Government has offered discussion paper on league tables but no sign of it yet; new selection policy will help but several aspects of selection will remain
- and curriculum
- Last schools White Paper said National Curriculum ‘fails to engage’ many pupils but doubts about Specialised Diplomas, main proposal for reform: academic, not practical; do not promise much for low achievers; serving employers and universities rather than pupils. (Various reports of Nuffield Review of 14-19 Education and Training.)
- Government document suggests LA disadvantage formula will begin to be implemented but only by 2008/9 and not clear how far it will go. Welcome proposed ‘progression premium’ to reward schools for success with low achievers
• Further measures
- School collaborations
- “Schools within schools”
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