Measuring Educational Achievement Purpose: Measuring Performance of: • Individual students • Teachers • School performance • School district “Report Cards” • Programs and policies
The TESTS • IQ tests • SAT\ACT • International tests • TIMSS- Third International Math and Science Study • PISA - Program for International Student Assessment • NAEP: National Assessment of Education Progress • ISAT (IL), MCAS (Ma.), TAAS (TX), CBEST (CA)
Validity of Educational Tests: What do they measure? • IQ tests: Intelligence or Aptitude? • Vocabulary? • Test-Taking Skills? • SAT: Predicted College Performance? • Achievement or Learning?
Unreliability of Tests: • Teaching to the Test: Lake Woebegone Effect • Percentage of Students taking the test. • Timing of the Test • Tests that don’t matter to students
Gender Bias Women do less well on Math SAT, but better on Math in school, and on Verbal SAT • Reasons:Gender related approaches to test-takingBiased questionsSocietal Biases
Cultural Bias: Minority Groups and Poor • Home and school disadvantages • Language and Vocabulary • Culturally Biased Question wording: “Marathon is to running as Regatta is to………..” • Test Anxiety (Claude Steele) • Race-related Validity problems