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Chapters 1-2-3-4

Chapters 1-2-3-4

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Chapters 1-2-3-4

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  1. Chapters 1-2-3-4 • Quick review for the quiz on the fourth day of classes • AP Biology • Condensed from the full ch 1-2-3-4 power point presentations

  2. HomeostasisFig 1.8 • Feedback mechanisms of living things • Negative Ex. • Blood glucose levels • Body temp. • Positive Ex. • Breast feeding • Blood clotting

  3. Hypothetico-deductive Reasoning

  4. Chapter 2:Chem-Is-Try

  5. Elements and Life • Define element: • Compound: • SPONCH CaK • ( ONCH 96% ) • Trace elements (Fe, I) • anemia, goiter—iodized salt, sea weed • Crops too—nitrogen, calcium

  6. Fig 2.7 Energy Levels of Electrons • light• fluorescence• photo-synthesis Energy Absorbed Energy Lost

  7. The major elements of life

  8. Covalent bonds Fig 2.10 (share electrons)

  9. Polar Covalent Bonds Fig 2.11

  10. Ionic bonds(electron transfer)

  11. Hydrogen Bonds fig 2.14

  12. Structure / Function Examples Mimic Molecules Ex: morphine

  13. CH 3 WATER:the stuff of life!

  14. Water’s polarity and hydrogen bonds • Account for its unique properties that contribute to the fitness of Earth’s as an environment for life.

  15. Cohesion/Adhesion • Cohesion is water’s attraction to water • Adhesion is water’s attraction to other substances • Surface tension • Water transport in plants

  16. Stabilize temperatures • High specific heat • Water moderates global and organismal temperatures • Evaporative cooling is important for animals as well as plants

  17. Expansionupon freezing • Because of Hydrogen bonding … • 0° C Ice is less dense than liquid water • Bodies of water would freeze solid

  18. Structure of Ice v. liquid water

  19. VersatileSolvent: • Ex: Salt and water • Ionic and polar com-pounds dissolve in water

  20. Even very large molecules like proteins dissolve in water as long as there are areas of ionic or polar regions.

  21. The pH scale • pH=The measure of H+ and OH- in a solution. • Scale 0-14 • Acids=increase the H+ concentration • Bases=reduce the H+ concentration

  22. pH = -log[H+] • Neutral = 10-7[H+] • pH 9 has H+ concentration of 10-9 M and an OH- concentration of 10-5 M • What are Buffers?