Vasco da Gama • Vasco da Gama was one of the most successful Portuguese explorers. • Using knowledge from Bartolommeu Dias’ and other voyages Da Gama was charged with the task of sailing to the riches of India. • With a fleet of four ships and 170 men da Gama left Lisbon Portugal for the unknown.
“It was July—they walked in solemn procession to the shore, lighted candles in their hands, priests chanting a solemn litany as they walked. The beach was crowded with people. Under the blazing summer sun they knelt once more before taking leave of the weeping multitudes” “But the sea was all broken with storm, high rolled the waves, and so short were the days that darkness prevailed. The crews grew sick with fear and hardship, and all clamored to put back to Portugal.” After passing Cape Verde Vasco da Gama sailed southwest to avoid strong currents at one point coming within 600 miles of South America Da Gama rests at the Quilimane River as his crew suffers from scurvy Da Gama passed the Great Fish River, the farthest Dias ever sailed
A quick note on scurvy • Scurvy is a disease contracted from the lack of vitamin c within the body. • The symptoms of scurvy include: spots on the skin, spongy gums, and bleeding from the mucous membranes. • Advanced symptoms include: the development of open pussy wounds, and tooth loss. • Scurvy can be cured by a simple diet of citrus fruits, thank you for your time.
Da Gama reached Calicut India after almost a year of sailing Opening a new era of trade for Europe and Asia.
During his three visits Da Gama Earned a reputation in the Indian Ocean for his ruthlessness. • He was a driven man who would do anything to complete his mission • Da Gama resorted to piracy when provisions were low and was known to torture and kill muslims (no matter what the age) to get what he wanted. SOL Creation of empires and destruction of native peoples.
Afonso de Albuquerque • Afonso de Albuquerque was a Portuguese nobleman who commanded the successful captures of key Muslim ports in the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf. • Albuquerque seized the important port of Goa in Southwestern India which became the Dutch administrative seat of power in the region, winning him the title “Duke of Goa.” • Albuquerque like da gama had no qualms about executing his tasks to the fullest, ordering in one instance the murder of every Muslim in the city of Malacca.
Portuguese Possessions in Asia and Africa With the Help of some controversial figures the Portuguese led the way in European sea exploration. Yet as quickly as it ascended Portugal would decline due to its inability to finance such an expensive enterprise such as colonization. The Spice Islands were a string of volcanic Islands who’s fertile soil sustained exotic and expensive spices. SOL Africa: European trading posts along the coast, trade in slaves, gold, and other products.
After the Spanish Armada was defeated in 1588 and as Portuguese influence in the region began to decline new powers sought to tap the riches of the far east.
VOC • The Dutch East India company was The first multinational corporation and the first company to offer stocks, its powers included: the ability to wage war, make currency, and create colonies. • Some of its colonial possessions included: The cape of good hope, java, Sumatra, and a trading post in Japan. • Since the Dutch had little interest in converting indigenous peoples they were able to gain a foothold in more areas of trade than countries such as Spain.
The British East India Company • The East India trade company was given royal permission by Elizabeth I to hold a monopoly for trade between the British Isles and the East Indies, eventually expanding to the Indian subcontinent and china. • The company mostly traded in cotton, silk, tea, and opium. • The company would come to rule India itself for 100 years. SOL Asia: Influence of trading companies (Portuguese, Dutch, British)