Formative Assessment Classroom Techniques (FACTS) Based on Science Formative Assessment: 75 Practical Strategies for Linking Assessment, Instruction, and Learning by Page Keeley September 2008 email@example.com
Learning Targets • Discuss Formative Assessment and its role in increasing student achievement/motivation • Learn/review/practice a variety of FACTs (Formative Assessment Classroom Techniques) that can be used in the social studies classroom
…formative assessment… refers to any number of ways that we can uncover student ideas/knowledge about concepts important to the unit being taught (diagnostic) in order to adjust our instruction to the needs of the students; collecting evidence of understanding in order to focus teaching and learning
A FA on A for L ! Assessment FOR learning • involves teachers providing descriptive rather than evaluative feedback to students • involves teachers assessing frequently and using the results to plan next steps in instruction • involves reporting to others about students’ achievement status at a certain point in time • both 1 and 2
Which of the following is NOT considered a key strategy for improving student learning/achievement: • Sharing learning targets/intentions with students • Providing evaluative/quantitative feedback • Engaging students in self assessment • Facilitating focused discussions, questions, learning activities • Utilizing peer assessment strategies
Based on evidence/research, “It’s not the difference in curricula, it’s the difference in teaching that really impacts student achievement.” • true • false
Descriptive and specific feedback should be provided to students • by the teacher • by other students • by both the teacher and other students
According to research, which of the following contributes most to student improvement • providing assessment scores to students • providing comments/feedback to students about their work • providing both scores and comments/feedback to students about their work
FACTs have implications for both teaching and learning • Selecting specific FACTs can improve teaching by providing a ‘template’ for a new pedagogical practice • Not every FACT is appropriate for every class/teacher • Research into [science] teaching and learning reveals that far too little time is devoted to ‘sense-making’; FACTs can provide a ‘structure’ for doing that • Don’t GRADE FACTs; use them to provide feedback and open lines of discussion for further thinking
A good idea – poorly implemented – is a bad idea (Ainsworth &Viegut, 2006)
Individual Rights v Common Good • Form a circle • Listen to the statement • Think…do you agree or disagree? • Agree—move to center; Disagree—stay on the outside; Discuss in groups • Is your position still the same?
#1: Agreement Circles • Activate student thinking • Are active/kinesthetic • Safely engage students in civil discourse • Uncover student ideas/preconceptions/conceptions • Can be used throughout a unit
How are individual rights protected? • Think about the question • In your head, compose some sentences/statements that answer the question • When the paper comes to you, read the other statements and add something new
#2: Chain Notes • Provides an opportunity to examine others’ thinking • Encourages synthesis and evaluation over recall • Allows various levels of entry points • Best for checking for understanding after students have had some opportunities to learn and explore the concept
Powers of the Individual Branches of Government • Work with one other person to sort the functions performed into the 3 categories on the colored paper. • Discuss why you sorted the way that you did. • Walk around to other tables and observe how they sorted.
#3: Card Sort • Put choices on strips of paper or cards • Work in teams of two—emphasize the reasoning/explaining component of the sorting decisions • Can be used throughout a unit
Freedom of Speech? • Which child do you agree with? • Why? (Handout) *created at Thinkfinity.org using ‘comic creator’
#4: Concept Cartoons • Promote thinking and discussion • Often allow for the surfacing of common misconceptions—diagnostic • Work well in both small groups and whole class • Can use ‘blank’ bubbles and allow students to fill them in then have other students interact with them • *Not all Concept Cartoons have a ‘right answer.’
2008 Presidential Candidates Debate Data (for 2007 only) From: Dec 2007, Political Arithmetik
Which match the data? • The Democrats received more debate time in 2007. • The debate moderators showed preference to some candidates. • The questions were longer in the republican debates, leaving less time per candidate to respond. • There are more republican candidates than democratic candidates.
#5: Data Match • Use evidence to draw conclusions • Helps teachers determine how well students understand the role and significance of data • Quantitative or qualitative data can be used • Students should record their answers independently, then engage in discussion in small groups or whole group
Rights • Use each letter of the word ‘RIGHTS’ to begin a sentence or statement about the concept.
#6: First Word-Last Word • Variation of acrostics • Used to activate student thinking about a concept or topic • First Word – at beginning of unit – to uncover student ideas • Last Word – after learning experiences – to allow comparison of ideas/growth and depth of understanding
You Be the Judge Issue an ‘evidence’ supported opinion for each of the statements below. • It is legal for public businesses to deny service to customers based on their race. • It is legal for a principal to search a school locker. • Principals have editorial control over school newspapers. • It is acceptable for schools to be racially segregated.
#7: Justified True or False Statements (or “You Be the Judge”) • Examine claims or statements • Use evidence from data, prior knowledge, or other sources to analyze their validity (support) • Can be used individually or in groups • Can be used throughout a unit
Government Provide evidence or justification for your answer.
#8: Commit and Toss • Engaging way to get a ‘snapshot’ of ideas/explanations that are prevalent in the class • Anonymous for students—safe environment to ‘try out’ their ideas/thinking • Use with a ‘forced-choice’ (multiple choice) item that requires an explanation/reasoning for selection • Can be used throughout a unit • Can also be “Commit and Pass”*
Take Home Messages • Activating prior knowledge and instituting self-assessment are two research based strategies shown to significantly impact achievement (+22%ile and +24%ile respectively). • “Understanding” requires application and explanation. • Effective teachers constantly monitor for engagement—and when they know that students are not engaged, they do something to change it. • Start small—pick just a couple of new strategies to implement.