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Finish: The Generation Effect; then Memory Consolidation. Psychology 355: Cognitive Psychology Instructor : John Miyamoto 05/08 /2014: Lecture 06-4.

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finish the generation effect then memory consolidation

Finish: The Generation Effect;thenMemory Consolidation

Psychology 355: Cognitive PsychologyInstructor: John Miyamoto05/08/2014: Lecture 06-4

This Powerpoint presentation may contain macros that were used to create the slides. The macros aren’t needed to view the slides. If necessary, you can disable the macros without any change to the presentation.

outline
Outline
  • Implications of the generation effect

Memory Consolidation

  • Synaptic consolidation – long-term potentiation (LTP)
  • Systems consolidation – evolving role of the hippocampus
  • Malleability of memory during retrieval – a potential application to the treatment of PTSD

Lecture possibly ends here

Why Does Generating Related Ideas Improve Memory?

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

why does generating ideas improve memory
Why Does Generating Ideas Improve Memory?
  • Ideas that you generate create associations with other ideas.Links to these ideas serve as retrieval cues.
  • The more links you have to a concept, the more waysyou have to access this information.
  • The mental activity of generating associations and relationships is a skill that you can strengthen.

Useful Study Exercises Based on the Generation Effect

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

useful study exercises based on generation effect
Useful Study Exercises Based on Generation Effect
  • Suppose you are studying topic X, e.g., you are studyingthe word length effect in working memory. How do you improve your memory for this topic?
  • Try to write a small list of hints for an idea that you want to remember.
    • E.g., what would be good hints for the definition of the word length effect and why it is important in the theory of working memory.
    • Example of hints: prove PL exists, Welsh children, “short beats long”, talk fast/remember more
  • Try to write exam questions about the word length effect.
    • E.g., create a multiple choice question about what is the word length effect.
    • E.g., create an essay question that asks for the implications of the word length effect.

Other Influences on Memory Strength – To Be Covered in Section

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

other influences on memory strength
Other Influences on Memory Strength

To Be Discussed in Section

  • Encoding specificity
  • State-dependent memory
  • The mnemonic value of mental imagery

Return to the Outline of the Memory Consolidation Topic

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

outline of memory consolidation
Outline of Memory Consolidation
  • Synaptic consolidation – long-term potentiation (LTP)
  • Systems consolidation – evolving role of the hippocampus
  • Malleability of memory during retrieval – a potential application to the treatment of PTSD

Definition of Consolidation – General Idea of Consolidation

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

consolidation of memories
Consolidation of Memories
  • Recently created memories are typically fragile.
    • Without additional retrievals, they are often too weak to retrieve.
    • A concussion soon after learning can cause permanent loss of a memory.
    • HM lost memory for many events during the year preceding his surgery.
  • Fragility of new memories implies that it takes cognitive processing after the initial experience to create a strong memory.
  • Consolidation is the process by which a memory is transformed from an unstable state to a more permanent state.

What Is Happening During Consolidation?

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

what is happening during memory consolidation
What Is Happening During Memory Consolidation?

Changes are happening at two levels:

  • Synaptic Consolidation:Repeated experience causes changes at the level of the synapse.
    • These changes occur quickly, over a matter of minutes.
  • Systems Consolidation:Repeated retrievals cause changes in the organization of neural circuits that represent memories.
    • These changes occur gradually, over days, months or even years.

Synaptic Changes During Learning – Long-Term Potentiation

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

synaptic consolidation
Synaptic Consolidation

1st Presentation of Stimulus

Continued Presentation of Stimulus

After Many Presentations of Stimulus

StructuralChanges

Increasedfiring(LTP)

Long-Term Potentiation (LTP): Structural changes at synapse result in increased firing to the same stimulus.

Same Diagram with Emphasis Rectangles

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

synaptic consolidation1
Synaptic Consolidation

1st Presentation of Stimulus

Continued Presentation of Stimulus

After Many Presentations of Stimulus

StructuralChanges

Increasedfiring(LTP)

Long-Term Potentiation (LTP): Structural changes at synapse result in increased firing to the same stimulus.

Systems Consolidation – Changing Role of the Hippocampus

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

systems consolidation the time course of memory formation
Systems Consolidation: The Time Course of Memory Formation

Figure 7.21 attempts to explain the role of the hippocampus in the encoding and consolidation of memories.

Cortical Areas

Cortical Areas

Cortical Areas

Hippocampus

Hippocampus

Hippocampus

Hippocampus

Same Diagram – Emphasis Rectangle on Left

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

the time course of memory formation
The Time Course of Memory Formation

Initial Encoding ofCurrent Experience

Cortical Areas

Cortical Areas

Cortical Areas

Hippocampus

Hippocampus

Hippocampus

Hippocampus

Same Diagram – Emphasis Rectangle on Middle

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

the time course of memory formation1
The Time Course of Memory Formation

Retrieval of Episodic Memory

Cortical Areas

Cortical Areas

Cortical Areas

Hippocampus

Hippocampus

Hippocampus

Hippocampus

Same Diagram – Emphasis Rectangle on Right

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

the time course of memory formation2
The Time Course of Memory Formation

Retrieval (After Much Learning) of Episodic Memory

Cortical Areas

Cortical Areas

Cortical Areas

Hippocampus

Hippocampus

Hippocampus

Hippocampus

Transition to Diagrams That Show the Same Process But With Different Graphics

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

the next slides display the same ideas as the preceding slides but with more informative graphics
The next slides display the same ideas as the preceding slides, but with more informative graphics.

Explanation of Consolidation in terms of Brain Diagrams

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

slide16

1: Processing of current information activates different brain areas in occipital, parietal, temporal and frontal cortex.

2: Multiple brain activations spread to hippocampus (convergence zone).

Somehow, hippocampus binds multimodal inputs together and encodes long-term memory.

Encoding

Event or episode

This slide is based on instructional material that was downloaded from the Pearson Publisherswebsite (http://vig.prenhall.com) for Smith & Kosslyn (2006; ISBN 9780131825086).

Event or episode

Diagram of Brain Activity During Retrieval

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

slide17

5: Somehow, the hippocampus triggers pattern completion (partial reactivation of original activation pattern).

4: Activation spreads to the hippocampus.

Retrieval

3: At time of recall, partial cues stimulate some brain areas that were also activated at encoding.

Partial cue

This slide is based on instructional material that was downloaded from the Pearson Publisherswebsite (http://vig.prenhall.com) for Smith & Kosslyn (2006; ISBN 9780131825086).

Partial cue

Partial cue

Same Diagram with Statement of Recapitulation Hypothesis

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

slide18

Retrieval

Recapitulation Hypothesis(Goldstein, p. 194, calls this the reactivation process):

Episodic retrieval involves reinstatement of activations thatwere present during encoding.

This slide is based on instructional material that was downloaded from the Pearson Publisherswebsite (http://vig.prenhall.com) for Smith & Kosslyn (2006; ISBN 9780131825086).

Reactivation Before & After Consolidation

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

slide19

Reactivation Before & After Consolidation .

Retrieval before consolidation has been completed.

Retrieval after consolidationhas been completed.

Summary re Consolidation

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

terminology consolidation reconsolidation
Terminology: Consolidation & Reconsolidation
  • Consolidation refers to processes that change an initially encoded memory into a permanent memory.
  • Reconsolidation refers to processes that restore a memory to a more permanent form after it has been retrieved.

Sometimes consolidation & reconsolidation are referred to together as “consolidation.”

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

summary re consolidation reconsolidation
Summary re Consolidation & Reconsolidation

What happens during consolidation & reconsolidation ...

... long-term memory representations become more stable over time;

... hippocampus plays a central role in retrieval of incompletely consolidated memories;

... over time, retrieval of memories becomes independent from the hippocampus and other medial temporal lobe activity.

Role of Sleep & Dreaming in Consolidation

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

interestingly enough
Interestingly Enough, .....
  • One function of sleep is that it aids in the consolidation of memories.
    • Rat brain cells that fire together while exploring a location also show increased firing in subsequent sleep. Not true of other cells that did not fire during exploration.
    • Disruption of dreaming seems to disrupt consolidation.
  • Role of sleep in consolidation is not understood, but thereseems to be a significant relationship between sleep andconsolidation.
  • Memory Representations Are Malleable at Time of Retrieval

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

memories representations are malleable at time of retrieval
Memories Representations Are Malleable At Time of Retrieval
  • Hypothesis: When memories are retrieved, they are vulnerable to change.
  • Under special circumstances, when memories are retrieved,memories can be wiped out.

Undoing Fear Conditioning in the Rat

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

undoing fear conditioning in the rat
Undoing Fear Conditioning in the Rat

Nader, K., Schafe, G. E., & Le Doux, J. E. (2000). Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval. Nature, 406, 722-726.

  • If a tone is paired with an electric shock, a rat will learn to freeze when it hears the tone (classical conditioning of fear).
  • Anisomycin – antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis thatis required in the formation of new memories.
  • Administering anisomycin to a rat can cause it to fail to learn.

Experimental Design (Diagram of Rat Learning or Unlearning)

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

experimental design
Experimental Design

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3

Condition 1:Day 1: Tone + ShockDay 2: Drug; no tone; no shockDay 3: Freezes to tone (shows learning)

Condition 2:Day 1: Tone + Shock + anisomycin Day 2: No drug; no tone; no shockDay 3: Does not freeze to tone(shows no learning)

Condition 3:Day 1: Tone + ShockDay 2: Drug + tone, no shock.Day 3: Does not freeze to tone(shows no learning)

Figure 7.23

Retrieval Makes Day 1 Learning Vulnerable to Change

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

experimental design1
Experimental Design

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3

Condition 1:Day 1: Tone + ShockDay 2: Drug; no tone; no shockDay 3: Freezes to tone (shows learning)

Condition 2:Day 1: Tone + Shock + anisomycinDay 2: No drug; no tone; no shockDay 3: Does not freeze to tone(shows no learning)

Condition 3:Day 1: Tone + ShockDay 2: Drug + tone, no shock.Day 3: Does not freeze to tone(shows no learning)

Figure 7.23

Retrieval Makes Day 1 Learning Vulnerable to Change

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

summary of main finding
Summary of Main Finding

Condition 1:Day 1: Tone + ShockDay 2: Drug; no tone; no shock

Day 3: Freezes to tone (shows fear conditioning)

Drug on Day 2 does not undo fear conditioning.

Condition 2:Day 1: Tone + Shock + anisomycinDay 2: No drug; no tone; no shock

Day 3: Does not freeze to tone(shows no fear conditioning)

Combining drug with tone & shock on Day 1 prevents fear conditioning.

Condition 3:Day 1: Tone + ShockDay 2: Drug + tone, no shock.

Day 3: Does not freeze to tone(shows no fear conditioning)

Combining drug with retrieval of memory of fear conditioning on Day 2 undoes fear conditioning.

Retrieval Makes Day 1 Learning Vulnerable to Change

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

experimental design drug anisomycin
Experimental Design (Drug = anisomycin)

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3

Condition 1:Day 1: Tone + ShockDay 2: Drug; no tone; no shockDay 3: Freezes to tone (shows learning)

Condition 2:Day 1: Tone + Shock + anisomycinDay 2: No drug; no tone; no shockDay 3: Does not freeze to tone(shows no learning)

Condition 3:Day 1: Tone + ShockDay 2: Drug + tone, no shock.Day 3: Does not freeze to tone(shows no learning)

Figure 7.23

Retrieval Makes Day 1 Learning Vulnerable to Change

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

interpretation
Interpretation

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3

  • Retrieval makes the fear conditioning from Day 1 vulnerable to damage. Combining retrieval with drug causes loss of conditioning.
  • Nader et al. (2000) state that the memory trace is "labile" during retrieval, i.e., its form can be changed at that time.

Figure 7.23

Using Fragility of Memories During Retrieval to Treat PTSD

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14

using the fragility of memories during retrieval to treat ptsd
Using the Fragility of Memories During Retrieval to Treat PTSD

Brunet, A., Orr, S. P., Tremblay, J., Robertson, K., Nader, K., & Pitman, R. K. (2008). Effect of post-retrieval propranolol on psychophysiologic responding during subsequent script-driven traumatic imagery in post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 42, 503-506.

  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Strong fear and stress responses are evoked by reminders of the initial traumatic event.
  • Brunet et al. asked whether human PTSD patients can loseor at least diminish their fear and stress conditioning bytechniques that are similar to Nader et al.'s demonstration that rats can lose their fear conditioning.
    • Study used propranolol, a drug that is used to prevent traumatic memories if administered immediately following a traumatic event. Propranolol reduces the fear & stress conditioning of trauma.

Brunet et al.'s Subjects Were PTSD Patients

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14