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States of consciousness Prof. dr. Anton M.L. Coenen NICI – Department of Biological Psychology Radboud University Nijmegen The Netherlands a.coenen@nici.ru.nl. States of consciousness. Lecture 4. Psychoactive drugs modulating consciousness. PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES AND CONSCIOUSNESS.

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States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

States of consciousness

Prof. dr. Anton M.L. Coenen

NICI – Department of Biological Psychology

Radboud University Nijmegen

The Netherlands

a.coenen@nici.ru.nl


States of consciousness
States of consciousness

  • Lecture 4. Psychoactive drugs modulating consciousness


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES AND CONSCIOUSNESS

THREE MAIN GROUPS OF DRUGS MODULATE CONSCIOUSNESS

CENTRAL STIMULANTS

AMPHETAMINES – COCAINE – CAFFEINE - NICOTINE

HYPNOTICS – SEDATIVES – ANXIOLYTICS

BARBITURATES – BENZODIAZEPINES

PSYCHODELICS (MIND-ALTERING DRUGS)

ALCOHOL - MESCALINE – LSD – PSYLOCYBINE – OPIATES


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

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BALANCE BETWEEN EXCITATORY AND INHIBITORY SYSTEMS


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES

BARBITURATESSince 1903 Fischer and von Mering - efficient drugs - high toxicity - modulate chloride channels

BENZODIAZEPINESSince1960 Sternbach – safe and efficient – modulate GABA-system



States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

EFFECT

DEATH

COMA

ANESTHESIA

SLEEP

BARBITURATEN

BENZODIAZEPINES

DOSE




States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

EEFFECTS OF BENZODIAZEPINES

·SEDATIVE / HYPNOTIC

·ANXIOLYTIC

·MUSCLE RELAXANT

·ANTI-CONVULSIVE

·AMNESTIC

·EEG-CHANGES

·TOLERANCE

·DEPENDENCY


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

The AIM model may be used to think about the state of the brain in conditions other than sleep. For example, when all three state values fall and the AIM points move to the left lower front corner, the result is coma. Hallucination would be the effect when the internal stimulus strength increases during waking, and AIM moves to the right upper front corner. AIM moves to the left upper rear corner when external stimulus strength is increased, as in electroshock therapy. Whether or not these assumptions are correct can now be tested experimentally.


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

Natives of Amazon prepare a brew of ‘ayahuasca’ (‘vine of the dead, or souls’). With this tea containing powerful hallucinogenic alkoloids, interior sounds are commonly heard, often triggering spontaneous vocalisations.


Alcohol
ALCOHOL of the dead, or souls’). With this tea containing powerful hallucinogenic alkoloids, interior sounds are commonly heard, often triggering spontaneous vocalisations.


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

Alcohol of the dead, or souls’). With this tea containing powerful hallucinogenic alkoloids, interior sounds are commonly heard, often triggering spontaneous vocalisations.

  • invades all parts of the body (molecules are small and soluble in both fat and water)

  • inhibits the flow of sodium across the membranes

  • expands the surface of membranes

  • facilitates response by the GABAA receptor

  • blocks glutamate receptors

  • increases dopaminergic activity


Nicotine
NICOTINE of the dead, or souls’). With this tea containing powerful hallucinogenic alkoloids, interior sounds are commonly heard, often triggering spontaneous vocalisations.


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology


Marijuana
MARIJUANA subtypes of acetylcholine receptors.


Cocaine
COCAINE subtypes of acetylcholine receptors.


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

Central effects subtypes of acetylcholine receptors.

Cocaine

Cocaine

Dopamine


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

When Coca-Cola was first produced, there was a clear reason why it relieved fatigue: It contained cocaine.


Heroin and morphine
HEROIN AND MORPHINE why it relieved fatigue:


Opiates narcotic analgesics
Opiates: why it relieved fatigue: narcotic analgesics

  • Pain relief

  • Sedation

  • Euphoria

  • Miosis

  • Impaired peristalsis

  • Respiratory depression

  • Inhibition cough reflex

a- Opium anta- Naloxon Morphine Heroine Methadon ……


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

Local Anesthetics why it relieved fatigue:


Gate control theory melzack and wall
Gate Control Theory why it relieved fatigue: Melzack and Wall


States of consciousness prof dr anton m l coenen nici department of biological psychology

  • Three classes of psycho-active drugs interfere with consciousness: central stimulants (enhancing), central depressants (diminishing) and psychodelics (‘changing’).

  • Central stimulants activate acetylcholine (nicotine), block GABA (caffeine) or inhibit dopamine re-uptake (amphetamine).

  • Central depressants open chloride channels (barbiturates), or facilitate GABA (benzodiazepines)

  • Psychodelics (‘hallucinogenics’) induce ‘altered states of consciousness (ASC)’, including hallucinations and distorted perception (amphetamine, cocaine, MDMA (ecstacy), LSD).

  • A deep brain depression causes anaesthesia, by opening Cl-channels (barbiturates), by agonistic action on GABA (benzodiazepines) or by antagonistic action on glutamate.

  • Powerful analgetics (pain killers) are morphine and heroine, interfering with opiate receptors and endorphines.

  • The fact that psycho-active drugs modulate neurotransmitter-systems in relation to consciousness pleads for a monistic view of consciousness.