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Current Drug Trends. Maxim W. Furek, MA, CADC, ICADC Garden Walk Recovery (570) 542 – 7946 www.gardenwalkrecovery.com. Bath salts. Mephedrone 3,4 methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) Methylone Circa 2011. Bath salts. 500 mg = $34.99 Ingested orally Snorted Injected Smoked.

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current drug trends

Current Drug Trends

Maxim W. Furek, MA, CADC, ICADC

Garden Walk Recovery

(570) 542 – 7946

www.gardenwalkrecovery.com

bath salts
Bath salts
  • Mephedrone
  • 3,4 methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)
  • Methylone
  • Circa 2011
bath salts3
Bath salts
  • 500 mg = $34.99
  • Ingested orally
  • Snorted
  • Injected
  • Smoked
bath salts sold as
Bath salts: sold as
  • Toy cleaner
  • Plant food
  • Herbal incense
  • Research chemicals
  • Pond sand
  • Pond scum cleaner
  • Stain remover
bath salts6
Bath salts
  • Synthetic designer drugs
  • Slightly altered molecular structure of known starter or parent drug
  • Mimics characteristics of other illegal drugs
  • Sometimes called “fake cocaine”
  • “Substituted cathinone”
bath salts7
Bath salts
  • 3,4 methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)structurally related to Schedule l hallucinogens MDMA and MDEA
  • 3,4 methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)structurally related to Schedule l stimulants cathinone and methcathinone
psychological dangers
Psychological dangers

Hallucinations / Psychosis

Extreme paranoia / Violent Behavior

Suicidal ideations

Agitation / Intense craving

physical dangers
Physical dangers

Chest pains

Increased blood pressure

Increased heart rate

Heart attack/ Stroke

Death or serious injury

legislation
Legislation
  • Lackawanna County bans the drug on April 13, 2011
  • Luzerne County President Judge Thomas F. Burke Jr. did the same April 25, 2011
  • On June 15, 2011 50-member PA Senate voted unanimously to outlaw bath salts, synthetic marijuana and Salvia divinorum.
legislation11
Legislation
  • DEA exercised its emergency scheduling authority to control three synthetic stimulants (Mephedrone, 3,4 methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and Methylone) used to make products marketed as “bath salts” and “plant food.”
  • October 21, 2011.
legislation12
Legislation
  • Synthetic Drug Control Act
  • December, 2011 - U.S. House of Representatives banned more than 30 synthetic drugs, including spice and bath salts.
  • Gives DEA more authority to put temporary bans on potentially hazardous drugs being investigated.
cloud nine
Cloud Nine
  • U.S. Sen. Bob Casey wants to close loopholes that allow makers of designer drugs to slightly alter their drugs and avoid federal and state bans.
  • Cloud Nine: variant of insect repellant similar to bath salts
  • (January, 2012)
update
Update
  • Jewelry Cleaner AKA Cosmic Blast
  • Synthetic cocaine
  • Contains Naphyrone ( MRG-1 or Energy 1)
  • Stimulant drug similar to mephedrone
  • Increased body temperatures
  • Not usually picked up on standard tests
synthetic cannabis

K2

  • Spice
  • Ocean Blue
  • “herbal incense”
Synthetic Cannabis
synthetic cannabis16

Created by Clemson University scientist John W. Huffman for research purposes in 1990s

  • JWH-018
  • JWH-073
  • JWH-200
  • CP-47,497
Synthetic Cannabis
synthetic cannabis17

“Not for human consumption”

  • Aromatherapy
  • “Mood enhancing”
  • “Long lasting”
  • “Legal high”
Synthetic Cannabis
physical symptoms

Myocardial infarction

  • Elevated blood pressure
  • Seizures
  • Increased agitation
  • Profuse sweating
  • Pale skin or vomiting
Physical symptoms
psychological symptoms
Psychological symptoms

Lost sense of reality

Babbling incoherently

Behavior akin to schizophrenia

Fluctuating symptoms

  • Extreme agitation
  • Anxiety
  • Delusions
  • Hyper-excited
  • Dysphoria
self reported symptoms
Self-reported symptoms

“long-lasting” high

“seeing things”

“hearing voices”

“extreme paranoia”

legislation21

November, 2010 - DEA announced its "emergency scheduling authority" to temporarily control the K2 chemicals.

March 1, 2011 - Five chemicals most commonly found in "Spice" and "K2” classified as Schedule I controlled substances, a category reserved for unsafe, highly abused substances with no medical usage.

Legislation
legislation22

June 15, 2011 - 50-member Pennsylvania Senate voted unanimously to outlaw bath salts, synthetic marijuana and Salvia divinorum.

Legislation
legislation23

Synthetic Drug Control Act

  • December, 2011 - U.S. House of Representatives banned more than 30 synthetic drugs, including spice and bath salts.
  • Gives DEA more authority to put temporary bans on potentially hazardous drugs being investigated.
Legislation
update april 21 2012
Update (April 21, 2012)
  • New Jersey's Division of Consumer Affairs has banned all forms of synthetic drugs that mimic marijuana's effects. Previously, five types of synthetic marijuana had been banned in the state, but New Jersey has banned all forms of the drug.
  • Most states ban some form of the substance, as does the federal government. The all-inclusive ban is the latest attempt by New Jersey to crack down on drug crimes.
synthetic cannabis25
Synthetic Cannabis

Leaves of Blue Lotus or Bay Bean coated with chemicals

signs of use
Signs of Use
  • K2/Spice is typically smoked
  • A strong clove smell
  • Coffee grinder
  • Pipes or screens
prevalence of use
Prevalence of use
  • One of every nine high school seniors reported using synthetic marijuana within the previous 12 months
  • n=47,000 8th, 10th and 12th graders
  • First time synthetic cannabis question was asked
  • Monitoring the Future. U of Michigan for the National Institute of Drug Abuse 01/1/2012
physical dangers28
Physical dangers
  • Three 16-year-old boys experienced heart attacks
  • Healthy
  • No signs of cardiovascular disease
  • Had smoked K2 within the past few days
  • UT Southwest Medical Center (11/9/2011)
prevalence of use30
Prevalence of use
  • Increasing abuse in U.S. military
  • 28 sailors assigned to USS Ronald Reagan dismissed (2011)
  • 64 sailors accused of involvement in a Spice ring (2011)
  • Air Force punished 497 airmen in 2011 compared to 380 in 2010
prevalence of use31
Prevalence of use
  • Navy investigators compare Spice with angel dust (PCP)
  • No two batches are the same
  • Some experience a euphoric buzz – others have suffered delusions lasting up to a week
salvia d ivinorum
Salvia divinorum
  • Salvia
  • Diviner’s Sage
  • Sage of the Seers
salvia d ivinorum33
Salvia divinorum
  • Salvia divinorumis an extraordinary herb used in shamanism, divination, healing, meditation, and the exploration of consciousness.
  • It should always be used in a thoughtful, intelligent manner, and only by responsible adults that are of sound mind and clear intent.
salvia d ivinorum34
Salvia divinorum
  • "The purpose of these sacraments is to purify, and to open the road. When it opens, it's as clear as the blue sky, and the stars at night are as bright as suns.”

Aurelia Aurora Catarino

Mazatec shaman

salvia d ivinorum35
Salvia divinorum
  • Used for centuries in healing ceremonies by Mazatec Indians of Oaxaca

[Pronounced wah-haa-ca]

salvia d ivinorum36
Salvia divinorum
  • December, 2010
  • Miley Cyrus
  • 18th birthday
  • Internet - TMZ &YouTube sensation
salvinorin a
Salvinorin A
  • Psychoactive constituent
  • Potent k-opioid receptor agonist.
  • Salvia divinorum is generally understood to be of low toxicity and low addictive potential.
salvinorin a38
Salvinorin A
  • Roth discovered that Salvinorin A targeted a single brain receptor – the kappa opioid receptor –

making salvia the strongest hallucinogen “gram for gram” found in nature (2002).

salvinorin a39
Salvinorin A
  • Could possibly be used to treat brain disorders including depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s.
medical applications
Medical Applications ?
  • Heroin
  • Marijuana
  • LSD
  • Psilocybin
  • Mescaline
salvinorin a41
Salvinorin A
  • A structurally novel κ-opioid receptor agonist.
  • Hallucinogenic
  • More specifically deliriant and dissociative.
dissociatives
Dissociatives
  • Aclass of hallucinogen which reduce or block signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain.
  • Are unique
  • Produce hallucinogenic effects, which may include sensory deprivation, dissociation, hallucinations, and dream-like states or trances.
salvinorin a43
Salvinorin A
  • Effects are sought after, even though the experience is often considered dysphoric by the user.
  • While salvinorin A is considered a hallucinogen, it is not a psychedelic.
  • Effects are qualitatively different than those produced by psychedelic hallucinogens such as LSD or mescaline.
salvia d ivinorum44
Salvia divinorum
  • Illegal in some states
  • Short-acting psychedelic
  • Strong dissociative effects
  • Chewed, smoked or consumed as a tincture
salvia d ivinorum45
Salvia divinorum
  • Increased feeling of insight
  • Improved mood
  • Sense of calmness
  • Increased sense of connection with nature
salvia d ivinorum46
Salvia divinorum
  • Used as treatment for anemia, headache, rheumatism, depression, colds, sore throat, constipation, diarrhea
  • *Potential as an analgesic
  • *Therapeutic tool for treating drug addictions
salvia d ivinorum47
Salvia divinorum
  • Not generally known to be toxic or addictive
  • NO fatal overdose reported
salvia d ivinorum48
Salvia divinorum
  • Carcinogens associated with smoking
  • Possible negative interventions with other drugs or medications
  • Possible dysphoria
legislation49
Legislation
  • In U.S. not regulated under the DEA Controlled Substances Act
  • Illegal in DE, OH, NJ, NY, PA.
  • On June 15, 2011 50-member PA Senate voted unanimously to outlaw bath salts, synthetic marijuana and Salvia divinorum.
legislation50
Legislation
  • Joe Baca (D-California) proposed HR 5607 for amendment of the Controlled Substances Act to place SalvinorinA and Salvia divinorum in federal Schedule I (2002).
legislation51
Legislation
  • Daniel Siebert sent letter to Congress arguing against proposed legislation.
  • Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics (CCLE) sends key members of US Congress report on Salvia divinorum and its active principle.
  • Also, letters from array of scientists concerned that scheduling Salvia would negatively impact important research.
  • HR 5607 did not pass.
afterthought
Afterthought
  • Certain experiences on drugs may be so unfriendly and uncomforting that the user may never want to try the substance again. This is especially true of the deliriants (e.g. Jimson weed) and powerful dissociatives (e.g. Salvia divinorum)