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The pollution. It is caused by issues of various origin; All the organisms are exposed to the same pollutants; the contaminants can be physical, chemists and biological. Atmospheric Particolato.

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the pollution
The pollution
  • It is caused by issues of various origin;
  • All the organisms are exposed to the same pollutants;
  • the contaminants can be physical, chemists and biological.
atmospheric particolato
Atmospheric Particolato
  • The suspended particles that compose it are substances at solid and liquid state that, for their small dimensions, are suspended in atmosphere for longer periods; the total dusts suspended or DTS are also called PM (Particulate Matter).
The particolato in the air can be constituted by different substances: sand, ashes, dusts, soot, flinty substances of various nature, vegetable substances, composed metallic, natural and artificial textile fibers, salts, elements as the carbon or the lead, etc.
On the bases of the nature and the dimensions of the particles we can distinguish:
  • - the aerosols, constituted by solid or liquid particles suspended in air and with an inferior diameter to 1 micron (1 µm);
  • - hazes, given by droplets with inferior diameter to 2 microns;
  • - the exhalations, constituted by solid particles with inferior diameter to 1 micron and usually released from chemical trials and metalworkers;
- smoke, given usually by solid particles with inferior diameter to the 2 µms and transported by mixtures of gas;
  • - dusts (real), constituted by solid particles with diameter between 0,25 and 500 microns;
  • - sands, given by solid particles with superior diameter to 500 µms.

Asbestos is the name given to a group of mineral highly fibrosis that can naturally be found in the environment: the Crisotilo (also called white asbestos), belonging to the mineralogical series of the serpentine one; and the anfibolis Crocidolite (blue asbestos), Amosite (brown asbestos), Antofillite, Actinolite and Tremolite.

asbestos characteristics
Asbestos’ characteristics

These minerals:

  • haven't any odor or taste;
  • are very resistant to heat and to the most part of the chemical substances;
  • are easily workable;

They are taken from:

  • opened-sky mines following the grinding of the rock and its enrichment.
carbon s monoxide
Carbon’s monoxide

It is a gas:

  • colorless
  • unscented
  • inflammable
  • very toxic.

It’s formed during the

combustions of the organic

substancesandproduced by

the unloadings of the


Effects on the man:

Its dangerousness is due to the formation

with the hemoglobin of the blood of an

physiologically inactive mixture, the

carboxyhemoglobin, that prevents the

oxygenation of the tissues. To low

concentrations it provokes migraines,

diffused weakness, fits of dizziness; to

greater concentrations it can provoke

lethal results.

benzene c 6 h 6
Benzene C6H6
  • The benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon structured in hexagonal ring and it is constituted by 6 atoms of carbon and 6 atoms of hydrogen (formula C6H6). It represents the aromatic substance with a simpler molecular structure and for this it can be defined the composed-basic of the class of the aromatic hydrocarbons.
The benzene to temperature environment is introduced as a colorless liquid that very quickly evaporates to the air. It's characterized by a prickly and sweetish odor. It is highly inflammable substance, but its dangerousness is mainly due to the fact that it provokes crabs.
the dangerousness of the benzene has been broadly shown by numerous medical rearches, for its ample use this substance is practically irreplaceable. A lot of industries use it to produce other chemical mixtures.
  • The annual world production of benzene overcomes by now the 30 million of tons and is due for the most greater part to the distillation of the oil, even if a notable proportion of benzene is still gotten by the distillation of the oil of tar of coal fossil.
chloride of vinyl c 2 h 2 cl
Chloride of vinyl C2H2Cl
  • The chloride of vinyl is a gas:
  • toxic
  • carcinogenic
  • inflammable
  • so unstable at normal environmental conditions which once mixed with the air it can become explosive.
chloride of vinyl c 2 h 2 cl1
Chloride of vinyl C2H2Cl
  • The whole existing chloride of vinyl has been produced by man and it is the result of the degradation of other artificial substances as the tricloroetilene, the tricloroetano or the tetracloroetilene.
Then the whole environmental pollution and the damages to own health, due to this substance, are to be imputed exclusively to man because it is the material used to realize a great variety of plastic products and up to the mid ’70 it was also employed as refrigerant gas, propellent for spray and as component of some cosmetic products.
ipa aromatics polycuclics hydrocarbons
IPA: Aromatics Polycuclics Hydrocarbons
  • The term IPA is the Italian acronym of Aromatics Polycyclics Hydrocarbons, a numerous class of organic mixtures all structurally characterized by the presence of two or more aromatic rings condensed among each other.
ipa aromatics polycuclics hydrocarbons1
IPA: Aromatics Polycuclics Hydrocarbons
  • The simplest ipa from the structural point of view is the naphthalene, a mixture of two rings that as pollutant dispersed in the air is found above all in gaseous form at temperature environment.
nitrogen oxide nox
Nitrogen oxide NOx

The term NOx is used

to indicate the sum

weighed of:

  • the nitrogen monoxide (No)
  • the nitrogen dioxide (NO2).
the nitrogen oxide no
The nitrogen oxide (NO)

It is a gas:

  • colorless
  • tasteless
  • unscented
  • produced especially during the processes of combustion at high temperature together with the nitrogen dioxide
  • the toxicity is limited
the nitrogen dioxide no 2
The nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

It's produced by the oxidation of nitrogen

oxide in atmosphere.

It is a toxic gas:

  • of yellow-red color
  • of strong and prickly odor and with great irritating power.

It is:

  • an energetic oxidizer
  • greatly reagent and therefore highly corrosive
the nitrogen dioxide no 21
The nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
  • It develops a fundamental role in the formation of the photochemical smog because it constitutes the base intermediary for the production of a whole series of very dangerous secondary pollutants as the ozone, the nitric acid, the nitrous acid, etc.
radon rn
Radon Rn

Chemically it is a noble gas

as helium or argon, it is

unscented, colorless, tasteless

and it hardly reacts with the other

chemical mixtures.

It's well 8 times heavier than the air, it is a

gas that is originated following the radioactive

decadence of elements as uranium and radio

(which are present in varying quantity in the

whole terrestrial crust).

  • Typically it is emitted by the ground and it can be spread in the air of houses freeing itself from openings or microfractures of the foundations.
  • This gas can also be freed by some construction material or by the spring water or withdrawn by the subsoil.
  • The radon is dangerous for inhalation: so much greater its concentration is in the air so higher is the possibility to develop a tumor following the exposure of the cells of the respiratory apparatus to the radiations emitted during the radioactive decadence.

The ozone is a toxic gas of bluish

color, constituted by unstable

molecules formed by three atoms

of oxygen (O3); these molecules

easily separate themselves freeing

molecular oxygen (O2) and an atom

of extremely reactive oxygen

(O3—> O2+O). For these

characteristics the ozone is

therefore an energetic oxiding

that can demolish material both

organic and inorganic.


Where it is present:

  • For more than 90% in the stratosphere where it is produced by the molecular oxygen for action of the ultraviolet rays solariums
  • In the troposphere, because of the atmospheric circulation in the lowest layers of the atmosphere
It is produced during various chemical

reactions in presence of the light of the

sun beginning from the primary pollutants,

in particular way from the nitrogen



The effects on man of an excessive

exposure to the ozone concern essentially

the respiratory apparatus and the eyes; it

must be signaled out the harmful action

towards the vegetation and destructive one

towards the materials.

oxide of sulphur
Oxide of sulphur

Normally the oxides of

sulphur which are

present in atmosphere are:

  • the sulphurous anhydride (SO2);
  • the sulphuric anhydride (SO3).

These mixtures are also

called SOx.

the sulphurous anhydride
The sulphurous anhydride

It is a gas:

  • colorless
  • irritating
  • not inflammable
  • very soluble in water
  • of prickly odor
  • heavier than the air so it has the

tendency to stratify itself in the lowest



It derives from the oxidation of the

sulphur during the processes of

combustion of the substances which

contain this element both as impurity

(as the combustible fossils) and as

constituent fundamental.

From the oxidation of the sulphurous anhydride the sulphuric anhydride or trioxide of sulphur that, reacting with water, either liquid or at the state of vapor, quickly originates the sulphuric acid, responsible to a large extent of the phenomenon of the sour rains.