DEFINITION Pollution is the effect of undesirable changes in our surroundings that have harmful effects on plants animals and human beings. (Pollutants –solid, liquid or gaseous substances). CLASSIFICATION OF POLLUTANTS Degradable or non persistent pollutants (Eg.foodwastevegelables etc. Slowly –degradable or persistent pollutants (Eg. Plastics) Non –degradablepollutants (Eg.nuclearwaste)
CAUSES, EFFECTS AND CONTROL MEASURES OF POLLUTION 1. AIR POLLUTION WHAT IS AIR POLLUTION? Air pollution occurs due to the presence of undesirable solid or gaseous particles in the air, in quantities that are harmful to human health and the environment. TYPES OF POLLUTANTS Primary pollutants Secondary pollutants
EFFECTS ON HUMAN BEINGS • Lung cancer, asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema • Exposure to air containing 0.001% of co lead to collapse come and death • Oxygen carrying capacity of blood • Impairs perception and thinking, head ache etc • Sulphur, nitrogen oxides irritates respiratory system • Suspended particles aggravates RTI • Many volatile organic compounds (eg. formaldehyde) and toxic particulates (eg. lead) can cause mutations, reproductive problems or cancer.
EFFECTS ON PLANTS • Damage trees from diseases, pests, drought, frost EFFECTS ON MATERIALS • Break down the exterior paint • Discolor irreplaceable monuments, statues, beauty sites etc (finance loss) EFFECTS ON THE STRATOSPHERE • Destruction of the ozone layer (ozone hole) IMPLICATIONS FOR MANKIND • Effects on human health • Food production • Plant and animal planktons damage • Effect on materials • Effect on climate
CONTROL MEASURES • Natural measures (Rain, wind) • Engineering measures (Substitutics, dispension higher smoke-stacks • Educational measures (legal, inter-national measures)
2. WATER POLLUTION CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION Surface water pollution • Disease causing agents • Oxygen –depleting wastes • Inorganic plant nutrients (eg. water soluble nitrates and phosphates) • Water soluble inorganic chemicals • Variety of organic chemicals • Sediment of suspended matter • Water soluble radio active isotopes • Hot water released by power plants and industries • Oil pollution
GROUND WATER POLLUTION • Urban run-off of untreated or poorly treated waste water and garbage • Industrial wastes • Agricultural practices • Leaks from underground storage pipes and tanks • Leachate from land fills • Poorly-designed and inadequately maintained septic tanks • Mining wastes EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION • Water borne diseases • Chemical poisoning CONTROL MEASURES • Setting up treatment plants • Root zone process
3.SOIL POLLUTION SOIL PROFILE • Top layer or the surface litter layer called O-horizon • The uppermost layer, the A –horizon • The subsoil layer, the B –horizon • Below the subsoil, the C –horizon CAUSES OF SOIL DEGRADATION • Erosion • Excess use of fertilizers • Excess salts and water
EFFECTS • Less fertile • Water holding capacity • Turbidity leading to the loss of aquatic life • Effect of half life • Salination and water logging CONTROL MEASURES • To prevent soil erosion • Area treatment • Drainage –line treatment • Adopting sustainable forming practices
4. MARINE POLLUTION DEFINITION • Marine pollution can be defined as the introduction of substances to the marine environment directly or indirectly by man resulting in adverse effect. CAUSES • Discharging wastes into the sea • Washed off pesticides and fertilizers from the land • Petroleum and oils washed off from the roads • Ship accidents and accidental spillages at sea • Off share oil exploration and extraction
CONTROL MEASURES • Sewage treatment plant • Primary treatment • Secondary treatment • Advanced sewage treatment For oil pollution –use of chemical dispersants EFFECTS • Development of red tides • Oil slicks damage marine life, affect fish, shall fish production • Reduces the market value of sea food.
5. NOISE POLLUTION SOURCES OR NOISE POLLUTION • Indoor noise pollution • Outdoor noise pollution EFFECTS • Temporary or permanent hearing loss • Emotional or psychological effects • Increased rate of accidents CONTROL MEASURES • Reduce noise at the source • Block the path of noise • Increase the path-length • Protect the recipient
6.THERMAL POLLUTION DEFINITION • Definition –Discharge of warm water into a river is usually called thermal pollution CAUSES • Discharge of heated water by the industries EFFECTS • Decreases the solubility of oxygen • Changes the ecological balance of the river • Promote the growth of certain fish and the fish catch may be high in the vicinity of a power plant • Change in the diversity of fauna
CONTROL MEASURES • Passing the heated water through a cooling pond or tower 7. NUCLEAR HAZARDS CAUSES • Leakage from nuclear power unit • Explosion of atom bombs • Testing of nuclear product EFFECT • Genetic anomalies • Mutation leading to cancer
8.SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT –CAUSES EFFECTS AND CONTROL MEASURES OF URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE. CLASSIFICATION • Municipal solid waste • Hazardous wastes CONTROL MEASURES OF URBAN WASTES Source reduction • Recycling • Disposal • Vermicomposting
HAZARDOUS WASTES • Toxic waste • Reactive waste • Ignitable waste • Corrosive wastes • Infectious wastes • Radioactive wastes ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND HEALTH RISKS • Contamination of ground water • Affects aquatic life, birds life and human life
9. ROLE OF AN INDIVIDUAL IN THE PREVENTION OF POLLUTION • Plant trees wherever you can and more importantly take care of them. They reduce air pollution • Reduce the use of wood and paper products wherever possible • Reuse as many envelopes as you can • Do not buy furniture, doors or window frames made from tropical hardwoods
Contd… • Use pesticides only when absolutely necessary and use them in small amounts. • Advocate organic farming • Reduce the use of fossil fuels • Buy consumer goods that last. • Try to avoid asking for plastic carry bags
Contd… • Recycle all newspaper, glass, aluminum and other items accepted for recycling • Set up a compost bin in your garden or terrace • Start individual or community composting or vermicomposting plants • Do not litter the roads and surrounding • You could join any of the several NGOs that exist in our country or become volunteers.
Contd… • Learn about the biodiversity of your own area • You cannot improve your world by not voting. • Do not get discouraged at the first sign of trouble • When talking to elected officials always be courteous and reasonable.
10. Disaster management: floods, earthquakes, cyclones landslide GUIDELINES FOR AN EFFECTIVE MITIGATION PROGRAM • Pro-disaster mitigation • Mitigation measures must ensure protection of the natural and cultural assets of the community • Hazard reduction methods • Any mitigation program must ensure an effective partnership between Government private sectors, NGOs, scientific and the community
ELEMENTS OF A MITIGATION STRATEGY • Risk assessment and vulnerability analysis • Incentives and resources for mitigation • Applied research and technology transfer • Public awareness and training • Institutional mechanisms • Land use planning and regulations • Hazard resistant design and construction • Structural and constructional reinforcement of existing buildings
FLOODS AND MITIGATION MEASURES STRUCTURAL MEASURES • Reservoirs flow to be regulated • Construction of embankments and floodwalls • Improve flow conditions in the channel and anti-erosion measures • Improved drainage. Non-structural measures • Flood –plain management • Maintaining wetlands • Flood forecasting and warning services • Disaster relief, flood fighting and public health measures • Flood insurance
EARTHQUAKES AND MITIGATION MEASURES • Role of NGOs CYCLONES AND MITIGATION MEASURES • Installation of early warning systems • Developing communication infrastructure • Developing shelter belts • Developing community cyclone shelters • Construction of permanent houses • Training and education • Land use control and settlement planning
LAND SLIDES AND MITIGATION MEASURES • Developmental programs that involve modification of the topography exploitation of natural resources • preventive measures for further landslides are drainage measures, erosion –control measures rock fall control measures • preventing deforestation • improving afforestation