Chapter 2: Nutrition Tools – Standards and Guidelines. Don’t let the “alphabet soup” of nutrient intake standards confuse you. Introduction. Eating well is easy in theory
Chapter 2: Nutrition Tools – Standards and Guidelines Don’t let the “alphabet soup” of nutrient intake standards confuse you
Introduction • Eating well is easy in theory • Just choose a selection of foods that supplies appropriate amounts of the essential nutrients, fiber, phytochemicals, and energy, without excess intakes of fat, sugar, and salt. • Be sure to get enough exercise to balance the foods you eat!!
Introduction • In practice, eating well proves harder than it appears • Many people are overweight, or undernourished, or suffer from nutrient excesses or deficiencies that impair their health • They are malnourished
Nutrient Recommendations • The Dietary Reference Intakes are nutrient intake standards set for people living in the United States and Canada. • The Daily Values are U.S. standards used on food labels.
Question?? • I know my diet needs improvement. • Agree • Disagree c. I never think about it.
Nutrient Recommendations • The DRI committee has set values for: • Vitamins • Minerals • Carbohydrates • Fiber • Lipids • Protein • Water • Energy
Goals of the DRI Committee • Goal #1 - Setting Recommended Intake Values - RDA and AI • Both are nutrient goals • RDA – Recommended Dietary Allowance • AI – Adequate Intake
Goals of the DRI Committee • Goal #2 – Facilitating Nutrition Research and Policy – EAR • EAR – Estimated Average Requirements
Goals of the DRI Committee • Goal #3 – Establishing Safety Guidelines • UL – Tolerable Intake Levels • To identify potentially hazardous levels of nutrient intakes
Goals of the DRI Committee • Goal #4 – Preventing Chronic Diseases • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) for energy nutrients • 45 to 65 percent from carbohydrates • 20 to 35 percent from fat • 10 to 35 percent from protein
Understanding the DRI IntakeRecommendations • Separate recommendations for men, women, pregnant, lactating women, infants, and children • Specific age ranges
Understanding the DRI IntakeRecommendations • The DRI in perspective • The values are based on available scientific research and updated periodically in light of new knowledge. • The values are based on the concepts of probability and risk. • The values are recommendations for optimal intakes, not minimum requirements. Include a generous margin of safety. • The values are set in reference to specific indicators of nutrient adequacy, rather than prevention of deficiency symptoms alone.
Understanding the DRI IntakeRecommendations • The DRI in perspective • The values reflect daily intakes to be achieved, on average, over time. The values are set high enough to ensure that body stores will beet nutrient needs during periods of inadequate intakes. • The recommendations apply to healthy persons only.
Why Are Daily Values Used on Labels? • One set of values that applies to everyone found only on food labels. • Reflect the needs of an “average” person – someone eating 2,000 to 2,500 calories a day. • Enable consumers to compare the nutrient values among foods.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans The Dietary Guidelines suggest that physical activity should be part of a healthy lifestyle
Diet Planning with the USDA Food Guide • A major recommendation of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is to choose a diet based on the USDA Food Guide. • USDA provides a food group plan – the USDA Food Guide.
Other food planning tools: • Exchange lists - appendix D • Canada’s Beyond the Basics – appendix B
How Can The USDA FOOD Guide Help Me to Eat Well? • In the U.S., we eat • too few of the foods that supply key nutrients and • too many calories and fats
Achieving Adequacy, Balance, & Variety: The Food Groups and Subgroups • If you design your diet around the USDA Food Guide, you will achieve adequacy, balance, and variety. • Divides food groups into subgroups • Example: vegetables • Orange and deep yellow • Dark green • Starchy • Legumes
Controlling Calories: The Discretionary Calorie Allowance • A person may choose to consume the following within the limits of the allowance: 1. Extra serving of the same nutrient-dense foods that comprise their diet • Fats • Added sugars • Alcohol • Omit the discretionary calories
Achieving Moderation: Nutrient Density • Choose the most nutrient-dense foods from each group to prevent overweight or obesity
Question?? Would you be happy eating like this? 1. Yes 2. NO 3. Maybe
Flexibility of the USDA Food Guide • Allows for substitutions according to • personal preferences • national and cultural food choices
Portion Control • People wishing to avoid overconsuming calories must pay attention to portion sizes
Portion Control A serving of grain is 1 oz., yet most bagels today weight 4 oz. or more--meaning that a single bagel can easily supply more than half of the grains that many people need in a day.
A Note About Exchange Systems • Exchange lists facilitate calorie control by providing an understanding of how much carbohydrate, fat, and protein are in each food group. • Appendix D (appendix B for Canada)
Consumer Corner: Checking Out Food Labels Food labels provide clues for nutrition detectives
What Food Labels Must Include • The Nutrition Education and Labeling Act of 1990. • Every packaged food must state: • The common name of the product. • The name and address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor. • The net contents in terms of weight, measure, or count. • The nutrient contents of the product (Nutrition Facts panel). • The ingredients, in descending order of predominance by weight.
The Nutrition Facts Panel • The following are found on all labels: • Serving size • Servings per container • Calories/calories from fat • Nutrient amounts and percentages of Daily Values for: • Total fat • Cholesterol • Sodium • Total carbohydrate/sugars/dietary fiber • Protein
The Nutrition Facts Panel • In addition, the label must state the contents of these nutrients expressed as percentages of the Daily Values: • Vitamin A • Vitamin C • Calcium • Iron
More About Percentages of Daily Values • The calculations used to determine the “% Daily Value” figures for nutrient contributions from a serving of food are based on a 2,000-calorie diet. • Example: If a food contributes 13 milligrams of vitamin C per serving, and the DV is 60 milligrams, then a serving of that food provides about 22 percent of the DV for vitamin C.
What Food Labels May Include • So far, we have looked at the accurate and reliable facts on nutrition labels. • Let’s look at more reliable claims but also unreliable, but legal claims that can be made on food labels.
Nutrient Claims on Food Labels • If a food meets specific criteria, the label may display certain approved nutrient claims.