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BLOOD

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  1. BLOOD Modified type of CT

  2. Blood constituents: • A. Blood plasma:55% of blood volumeincludes: • 90 % water. • 10 % : inorganic saltsand organic substances: mainly plasma proteins (albumins, globulins, fibrinogen and prothromin).

  3. B. blood elements: These constitute about 45 % of total blood volume. They are the: • 1-red blood corpuscles (R.B.Cs) • 2-the white blood cells (W.B.Cs) or leukocytes including a-the granular leucocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils) and b-the agranular leucocytes (lymphocytes, monocytes) • 3-the blood platelets

  4. Observation of a blood film

  5. Red blood corpuscles (R.B.Cs)

  6. R.B.Cs count: • Average R.B.Cs count in normal malesis 5 - 5.5 millions / mm3 blood, whereas in females it is 4.5-5 millions / mm3 blood. • Life Span of R.B.Cs.: • It is about 100-120 days..

  7. Shape: biconcave discs. Nucleus: non nucleated. Size: their diameter ranges between 7.2-7.8 in blood films. It’s cytoplasm: contains Hemoglobin concentrated at the periphery.

  8. Abnormalities in R.B.Cs.: • Abnormalities in the number of R.B.Cs: • i- Polycythaemia: i.e. increase in the total number of R.B.Cs. • ii- Anaemia: i.e. decrease in the total number of R.B.Cs.

  9. Abnormalities in the size of R.B.Cs.: • Anisocytosis: when there are R.B.Cs. of variable sizes. • i- Microcytes: when the diameter of R.B.Cs.is less than 6. • ii- Macrocytes: when the diameter of R.B.Cs.is more than 10.

  10. Poikilocytosis: when R.B.Cs present in a blood film with variable shapes. • Sickle cell anaemia

  11. Leucocytes • Normal Count: • The average total W.B.Cs. count is 4000-10000 / mm3 blood.

  12. Leucocytes (W.B.Cs)

  13. Granular leukocytes A-Neutrophils B-Eosinophils C-Basophils

  14. Neutrophils66-70% of leukocytic count

  15. Neutrophil Barr’s body

  16. Functions of Neutrophils: P.N.Ls (neutrophils) are the first line of defense against any invading micro-organism

  17. Abnormal Neutrophil Count: -Neutrophilia: i.e. abnormal increase in the number of neutrophils. This is observed in acute inflammations e.g. appendicitis, tonsillitis. -Neutropenia: i.e. abnormal decrease in the number of neutrophils e.g. in influenza, typhoid fever.

  18. Eosinophils1-4% of leukocytic count

  19. Function of Eosinophils: They are responsible for regulation of allergic immune reactions.

  20. Abnormal Eosinophil Counts: 1-Eosinophilia: i.e. abnormal increase in the number of eosinophils as in: - Allergic reactions e.g. asthma, urticaria -Parasitic infections e.g. Bilharziasis. 2-Eosinopenia:i.e. abnormal decrease in the number of eosinophils e.g. as result of prolonged corticosteroid therapy .

  21. Basophils0-1% of leukocytic count

  22. Basophil

  23. Function of Basophils: Basophils are responsible for the release of Histamine in systemic allergic reaction

  24. Agranular leukocytes

  25. Monocyte 3-8% Kidney-shaped nucleus platelets

  26. Functions of Monocytes: Monocytes are phagocytic cells. Abnormal Monocytes Count: Monocytosis: is an abnormalincrease in the number of blood monocytes. It occurs in diseases like malaria, typhus, viral infections

  27. Lymphocyte Monocyte

  28. Lymphocytes 20-25% Large, indented nucleus

  29. Abnormal Lymphocytic Count: Lymphocytosis: It is an abnormal increase in the number of lymphocytes as in: -lymphatic leukaemia - chronic infections e.g. tuberculosis, syphilis, whooping cough.

  30. Platelets 150,000-350,00/mm3 (about ¼ - ½ million/mm3).

  31. Blood platelet

  32. Function of Blood Platelets: Blood platelets are concerned with: - the process of thrombus formation (blood clotting) in response to any vascular endothelial injury to prevent excessive blood loss. - clot retraction and removal of the blood clot after healing of the vessel wall to re-establish the flow of the blood.

  33. In an ideal blood smear you can identify many formed blood elements