Bias in Political Communication Experiments. Jamie Druckman & Thomas Leeper Dept. of Political Science Northwestern University. Mass Communication Effects. Political communication research is “one of the most notable embarrassments of modern social science” (Bartels 1993 ).
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Dept. of Political ScienceNorthwestern University
1. Processing Mode
2. Need to Evaluate
Pre-treatment effects (e.g., leading to no experimental stimulus effect) will be more likely to occur when individuals are:
Motivated Reasoning Corollary
Procedure Four waves, 5 days apart.
--received two relevant pre-treatment frames, along with processing manipulation.
virtually no attrition because compensation contingent on full completion.
virtually no coverage of these issues during the experiment or several months prior.
Expect survey frames will have scant effects in the OL conditions, but will impact MB processors (and the no-pre-treated individuals).
***p£.01; **p£.05; *p£.10 for one-tailed tests, relative to OL Processors in contrary pre-treat environment and received survey frame condition.
Some people have opinions about almost everything; other people have opinions about just some things; and still other people have very few opinions. What about you? Would you say you have opinions about almost everything, about many things, about some things, or about very few things?
almost many some very few
everything things things things
Compared to the average person, do you have a lot fewer opinions about whether things are good or bad, somewhat fewer opinions, about the same number of opinions, somewhat more opinions, or a lot more opinions?
a lot fewer somewhat about the somewhat a lot more
opinions fewer opinions same more opinions opinions
Some people say that it is important to have definite opinions about lots of things, while other people think that it is better to remain neutral on most issues. What about you? Do you think it is better to have definite opinions about lots of things or to remain neutral on most issues?