FDR’s first Inaugural address. Chapter 9 political communication.
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Roosevelt’s campaign: he campaigned against the policies of Hoover, but said as little as possible about what he would do. Roosevelt actually expanded dramatically on the policies that Hoover had implemented in his last year in office. Why? They appeared to be working.Inaugural address
Starts with historic phrase that “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” But what is this fear?
Addressing the issue of just needing to restore confidence. “Only a foolish optimist can deny the dark realities of the moment.”
Is FDR addressing fear as a lack of consumer/business confidence?
“Small wonder that confidence languishes, for it thrives only on honesty, on honor, on the sacredness of obligations, on faithful protection, on unselfish performance; without them it cannot live.”
Redistribution of land sounds significantly similar to land reform that has marked the transition from feudal to capitalist societies.
Raise values of agricultural products – farm subsidies
Reduce spending at all levels of government austerity in administration.What is he calling for?
Nationalization of transportation, communications, and utilities.
“there must be a strict supervision of all banking and credit and investments; there must be an end to speculation with other people’s money, and there must be provision for an adequate but sound currency.”
“income balance outgo” – balancing the budget
Meet financial obligations of debt, but foreign trade takes a back seat to “the establishment of a sound national economy.”
Declares a hope that the existing government institutions will result in the changes he describes, but is asking for tolerance of broad presidential powers to get these things done. Requesting war powers.
Fear that he spoke of may be fear of government intervention in the market and government as tyranny.
“truth claims” Someone makes the statement that the Obama administration is spending $2 billion on a ten day trip to India. Others report “they are saying this trip costs taxpayers $2 billion.” While it is true that “they” are saying it, it is not true that it is costing $2 billion.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZ1nqflHI6QPolitical communication or marketing?
It is generally agreed that media reinforces political opinion but rarely converts anyone.
Today, few US cities have more then one paper.
IE the Seattle Post-Intelligencer printed its last copy March 17,2009.
However has continued with an online version, not necessarily a bad thing.Media monopoly
“Some 20 corporations control most of what Americans read, hear, and view”
“The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is supposed to guard against oligopoly but in recent years has seen no problem with bigness and fewness.” Suggestion of regulatory capture by special interests.Media corporations
Example: a news show or long-term investigative report has initial upfront costs that are high, paying for investigative efforts or resources. Each additional use is pennies.
Local news is cheap to produce. Costly to keep a journalist in Washington with connections.
Fewer journalists in Washington, fewer journalists paying attention and keeping an eye on government.
Fewer “beat journalists”. When an issue crops up within a policy area, reporters must rely on experts, usually from the government, without the knowledge base to know if the information is accurate.Producing the news
Nomination by television: A good showing in early primaries and the press depicting as a frontrunner increases donors through the bandwagon effect.
Candidate who photographs well and works the medium can become President with a minimum of political experience.Television and presidential politics
Reduction of social cohesion as we stay home instead of socializing (Putnam in Italy)
More polarization as we watch different sources of information than our neighbors.
Long campaigns – voters lose interest or can’t tell the difference between the candidates (if they avoid talking about the issues)
Negative campaigning disgusts voters. Reduces turnout with Democratic voters more than Republican voters.Television and apathy
“equal time” and “fairness doctrine” – abolished during the Reagan administration.
This is an example of administrative law and how an agency can, effectively, change the nature of how our laws are implemented or enforced.
This allowed for news outlets to become more polarized, thereby encouraging the polarization of the electorate.FCC
“Accordingly, Americans grow up with the notion that the White House does most of the work and has most of the power, whereas Congress and the courts hardly matter.”
Largely ignores federal agencies and states. Lack of interest and lack of money.
Outside of state capitals there is little news about state politics. Easier to influence without the press policing.
Little interest, and therefore little coverage of international newsNews as entertainment
Political elites present an initial frame. While reporters get up to speed on the topic they initially support the frame provided. It is not until they have become more informed that they are able to challenge the initial frame. This is why it is important to have a “beat” reporter knowledgeable about the issue, to challenge the government frame if it does not pass the sniff test.Framing
All that you can do is make sure you are getting your information from the best possible sources – the book says the elite media, I would add that you should take advantage of your current access to journals as well.
“Equal time” and “fairness doctrine” no longer recognized.
Fewer beat reporters and in depth reporting makes reporters more dependent on official sources.
With multiple (and politicized) media outlets, politicians can pick and choose which media to talk to. 2010 election a number of challengers refused to speak to reporters that might ask difficult questions.
With politicians speaking only to favored media, reporters hold the tough questions to retain access.
4 of 5 potential Republican candidates had contracts with FOX news.Adversarial in decline
Vietnam War, initially accepted official accounts, but came to be known as the “five o’clock follies”.
Reporters went out and got their own stories, it turned the public against the war.
Invasion of Grenada, reporters kept out, used media pools taken to what they wanted them to see.
First Gulf War, media pools limited to Kuwait City, access rationed, reports censored, daily briefings were a multimedia presentation
Iraq War, embedded journalists with strict restriction on the content of their reports.War coverage