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ECT 455

ECT 455. International Issues Wireless Internet and M-Business. Agenda. Market News International/Localization issues Mobile and wireless systems Final exam topics. Global e-Business. Opportunity for expansion

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ECT 455

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  1. ECT 455 International Issues Wireless Internet and M-Business ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  2. Agenda • Market News • International/Localization issues • Mobile and wireless systems • Final exam topics ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  3. Global e-Business • Opportunity for expansion • An ambitious and expensive investment that does not guarantee increased revenue • Potential global businesses must review expected revenues vs. expected cost • Linguistic and cultural barriers ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  4. Choosing an International Market • Focus time and money in one or two key markets initially • Research competitors and visitors in foreign markets • When choosing an international market consider: • The number of people online • Internet usage growth rates • Per capita income • The consumers’ expectations of your business • Resources • Global Reach (http://global-reach.biz/globstats/index.php3 • Projections (http://glreach.com/eng/ed/art/2004.ecommerce.php3) ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  5. Obtaining a Local Internet Address • .com domain name is the most universally recognized address on the Web • Domain-name registration in foreign countries is often complex • May require owning a trademark or incorporating your business in the foreign country • Organizations offering domain name registration services: • NetNames ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  6. Internationalization and Localization • Internationalization (I18n) • Restructuring the software used by your e-business so that it can process foreign languages, currencies, date formats and other variations involved in conducting business globally • Compatible with 16-bit character encoding systems (Unicode) and other computing standards • Localization (L10n) • Includes the translation and cultural adaptation of your site’s content and presentation • Online translation services • Enterprise Translation Server; Alis Technologies • Logos ; AltaVista’s Babelfish ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  7. Internationalization and Localization • Online translators are not 100 percent reliable • Consider the context of the message in a foreign culture • Translate META tags and text within graphic images • Adaptation of site layout to accommodate translations • Color scheme and logo translation • Conversion rates • Examples: Ikea, United Airline, Yahoo; Amazon ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  8. Internationalization and Localization • Consider downloading capabilities in foreign markets • Global content • Refers to information and design that requires translation, but is essentially the same for all cultures • Regional content • Product and marketing information that is usually written once in English and then adapted for various markets • Local content • Material on specific regional pages that appears only on that Web site, such as regional promotions, pricing, delivery and store or office locations ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  9. Payment Systems • Offer alternatives to credit-card payment • In many countries, credit cards are far less common than in the United States • In Europe, cash-on-delivery is a common form of payment • Giros:Wire transfers between bank accounts • Direct Debit • e-Payment service from an American company called EuroDebit • Enables electronic debits from European customers’ bank accounts to be sent to merchants’ bank accounts for a small fee • Other Methods: • smart card, e-cash ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  10. M-Commerce: Introduction • Wireless technology turns e-business into m-business, or mobile business • Current applications • Conduct online transactions • Make purchases • Trade stocks • Send e-mail • Future applications • A wireless office, where computers, phones and other office equipment are all networked without cables ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  11. Wireless Technology and Devices • Wireless development • First-generation wireless technology was the cellular phone • Second generation wireless technology, which includes digital cellular phones, is currently in use worldwide • Third generation, or 3G technology will enable wireless devices to send and receive data as much as seven times faster than a standard 56K modem • Wireless devices • Personal digital assistants (PDAs), Palm OS • Digital cellular phones (WAP Phones) • Two-way pagers (RIM) • MS Windows CE/Pocket PC ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  12. Obstacles for m-Business Adoption • Service is not universally available and still relatively expensive • Limited bandwidth restricts the amount of data that can be sent over the wireless network • Wireless devices have significantly smaller memory capacity and less powerful processors than desktop computers • Multiple standards ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  13. Content • Compare to traditional web • Smaller screens • Low bandwidth • Monochrome vs. Color • Character vs. Bit modes • Font control • Limited local memory • Limited data entry capabilities • Mini browser features • Phones vs. PDAs vs. new form factors ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  14. m-Business • m-Business • e-Business using wireless devices with Internet access • B2C marketplace • Increased conveniences for consumers • Frequent, small transactions • Receiving news, sports scores, e-mail, coupons and advertisements • B2B marketplace • Salespeople can access product databases and place orders • Address customer needs immediately • Ordering and billing will be conducted remotely ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  15. Wireless Internet Access • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) • Each transmission is assigned a specific channel, giving the transmission the benefit of the entire bandwidth within that channel and reducing the possibility that a connection will be broken • Able to assign each transmission on the network a unique code to ensure security • Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) • Uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) which takes multiple calls and assigns each call to a different time slot on the same radio frequency, eg. Short message service (SMS) ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  16. Wireless Internet Access • 3G technologies : high speed Internet access, email, streaming audio and video • EDGE (AT&T, Nokia) • Cdma2000 (Sprint PCS) • W-CDMA (NTT DoCoMo) • International Telecommunications Union (ITU) • Establishes guidelines for 3G ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  17. Wireless Web Technology • Three technologies are used to provide Web access to wireless devices • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) • Palm OS --Web clipping • Microsoft’s Pocket Internet Explorer ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  18. PDA and Web Clipping • Web clipping • Allows users to take relevant pieces of a Web site and deliver it to a wireless device, eliminating excess content and graphics • Proxy server • Lies between client (such as a Web browser) and Web server • Query is received by a proxy server controlled by the wireless ISP • Proxy server goes to the Web site and “clips” the necessary data • The proxy server transmits the data back to your wireless device • If the proxy server does not have the information, it passes the request to the regular server • Query Application Builder (QAB) • Web designers build (PQAs) to be installed on users’ Palm handheld computers ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  19. WAP • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) • Developed by Nokia, Ericsson, Motorola, etc. • A set of communication protocols designed to enable different kinds of wireless devices to communicate and access the Internet • Designed to standardize development across different wireless technologies worldwide • Intended primarily for Internet-enabled digital phones, pagers and other handheld devices • Uses Web sites specifically designed for wireless handheld devices that have small screens and low-bandwidth constraints ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  20. WML • Wireless Markup Language (WML) • The scripting language used to create Web content to be delivered to wireless handheld devices, based on XML • Removes “unnecessary” content from Web pages • WML tags are used to “mark up” a Web page to specify how the page should be formatted on a wireless device • WML works with the WAP to deliver the content • Similar to HTML, but it does not require input devices • Microbrowsers • Designed with limited bandwidth and limited memory requirements • Access the Web via the wireless Internet ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  21. WAP and WML • How wireless Internet works: • A WAP gateway, which acts as a proxy server, receives the request, translates it and sends it to the appropriate Internet server • Server responds by sending the requested WML document • The WAP gateway parses this document's WML (i.e., it analyzes the WML document, checking it for correctness) and sends the proper text to the digital phone • Deck A WML document • Card • Consists of one user interaction, providing the WML browser with a small, self-contained document for browsing ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  22. Software Appliances for Wireless Devices • No widely accepted standard for wireless development • Developers are often required to develop multiple applications • Microsoft Pocket Internet Explorer • Reformats complete Web pages as they are downloaded from the Internet for display on the Pocket PC • Allows Pocket PC users to access most of the content currently available on the Web and eliminates the need to tailor Web content for delivery to handheld devices ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  23. Wireless Local Area Networks • Easier to install and maintain without disrupting an office or without having to install a new a new network connection in each location • Technologies • Radio Frequency WLANs (RF WLANs): Used to network devices at a distance • Laser technology • Infrared technology • Bluetooth • Wi-Fi 802.11x ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  24. Wireless Communications • Wireless communications can be unreliable and slow, wireless-device bandwidth is about one fifth of the capabilities of a standard dial-up connection • General packet radio services (GPRS) • Enables devices to transmit data at speeds of up to 114 kbps • Universal mobile telecommunications standard (UMTS) • Will offer transfer speeds of up to 2 Mbps for wireless devices • Smart phones • Mobile phones that send and receive both voice and data messages • Used to securely send and receive secure mobile transactions ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  25. Wireless Hype Cycle Source: Gartner ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  26. Location Tracking • Location tracking • Can be used for navigation, such as GPS (Global Positioning System) devices installed in cars • Can be used by shipping companies to track delivery trucks, giving customers more accurate tracking information and expected delivery time • Can also be used for targeted marketing ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  27. Location-based Services • 911 locator • Government mandate • Triangulate position from 3 towers • Advertising • Impulse buying, walking past a store • Discounts • Mapping and Directions • Weather forecasts ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  28. Global Positioning System (GPS) • Developed by the United States Department of Defense • Uses satellites to track a user’s position (vertical and horizontal), velocity and the time in their location • Six circular orbits (four satellites per orbit), five ground stations and three antennas • Triangulation • Three (of four) satellites are used to determine the latitude, longitude and altitude of the receiver, the fourth satellite is used to check for errors in the triangulation ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  29. The Carriers Rule! • Rollout of wireless Internet services depends on the carriers • They own the bandwidth licenses • Competing standards, esp. in the US • Investment in infrastructure • Global and nationwide coverage • Auctions for new bandwidth • Competition • Cooperation • Contrast the situations in Europe, Japan and the US. ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  30. Future of Wireless Internet • Decreasing cost and size of wireless phones and mobile devices • Improving technology • Increasing number of devices made wireless • Increased venture capitalist interest in wireless technology ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  31. Ultimate Wireless Device • Combination of all features of a mobile phone, PDA and two-way pager • Camera for video telephony and photography • Make calls from anywhere in the world • Send and receive e-mail in real-time, without having to dial into a service provider • Maintain your address book, schedules, to-do lists, etc. • Built-in GPS System ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  32. Transforming the PC-based Web • Sites must be rearchitected • Mapping (UAL) • New business models needed • Location-based services • Push vs. Pull • CRM – customer knowledge/preferences • Device ubiquity • Interaction b/w voice and data ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

  33. http://www.united.com/page/middlepage/0,1454,66,00.html ECT 455/HCI 513 Susy Chan Ph.D.

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