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  1. Priority Based Conflict Resolution in Multi-User Context Aware Environment By Amit R Mahale Slides adapted from my final year undergrad project work

  2. Scope • Introduction • Issues • Problem Definition • Proposed System • Conclusion • References Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  3. Definition • Dey & Abowd, Define Context as • Any information that can be used to characterize the situation of entities (i.e. whether a person, place or object) that are considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and • the application themselves. Context is typically the location, identity and state of people, groups and computational and physical objects. Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  4. Issues • Dearth of conflict resolution algorithms. • No attention to heterogeneous family needs. • Manual overriding not supported. Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  5. Problem Definition • Need • conflict resolution methodologies in a multiuser context aware environment with heterogeneous user preferences. • Problems to be addressed • First, the system has to define what is considered as a conflict. • Then it should be able to detect the conflict. • Ideally, conflict resolution should not involve any human intervention. However, manual overriding should also be supported. Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  6. Proposed System Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  7. Proposed Methodologies • Preemptive Role Based Conflict Resolution • Preemptive Priority Based Conflict Resolution • Non-Preemptive Priority Based Conflict Resolution • Time Slice Based Preemptive Priority Conflict Resolution • Interactive Preemptive Priority Based Conflict Resolution • Democratic Group Preference Conflict Resolution • Role and Age Factor based Group Preference Conflict Resolution Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  8. Conclusion • The proposed Conflict Manager resolves conflicts among multiple users. • The Conflict Manager consists of various methodologies to suit the versatile needs of the family. • The Conflict Manager maintains user profiles and calculates the priority of the user by utilizing various methodologies. • In future, we would like to make the Conflict Manager as a learning system. Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  9. References [1] C.Shin, W.Woo, "Conflict Resolution Method using Context History for Context-aware Applications," Pervasive 2005 workshop, pp. 105-110, 2005 [2] Choonsung Shin and Woontack Woo, “Conflict Resolution based on User Preference and Service Profile for Context-aware Media Services” [3] Choonsung Shin, Hyoseok Yoon, and Woontack Woo, “User-Centric Conflict Management for Media Services Using Personal Companions “ETRI Journal, Volume 29, Number 3, June 2007. [4] Hsu-Yang Kung; Ching-Yu Lin, “Application-Layer Context-Aware Services for Pervasive Computing Environments”, in IEEE Innovative Computing, Information and Control, 2006. ICICIC apos;2006. First International Conference on Volume 3, Issue , 30-01 Aug. 2006 Page(s): 229 – 232 [5] Yong Qi; Min Xi; Saiyu Qi; Jizhong Zhao, “A Conflict Resolution Method in Context-Aware Computing”, Computer and Information Science, 2007. ICIS 2007. 6th IEEE/ACIS International Conference. Volume , Issue , 11-13 July 2007 Page(s):135 – 140. [6] Baldauf, M., Dustdar, S. and Rosenberg, F. (2007) ‘A survey on context-aware systems’, Int. J. Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp.263–277. [7] Amirreza Masoumzadeh, Morteza Amini, Rasool Jalili, Sharif University of Technology, Iran , “Conflict Detection and Resolution in Context-Aware Authorization”, 21st International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (AINAW'07) pp. 505-511 [8] Choonsung Shin, Daeho Han and Woontack Woo, “Conflict Management for Media Services by exploiting Service Profile and User Preference”, ubiComp workshop(ubiPCMM), pp. 48-57, 2005. [9] S.Jang, W.Woo, "ubi-UCAM: A Unified Context-Aware Application Model" Context (LNAI/LNCS), pp. 178-189, Jun. 2003. [10] Y.Oh, C.Shin, W.Jung, W.Woo, "The ubiTV application for a Family in ubiHome," 2nd Ubiquitous Home workshop, pp. 23-32, 2005. [11] C.Shin, W.Woo, "Service Recommendation for Conflict Resolution in Context-aware Media Services," ubiComp 2005, pp. 000-000, 2005. [12] C.Shin, Y.Oh, W.Woo, "History-based Conflict Management for Multi-users and Multi-services," Context 2005, pp. 000, 2005. [13] Y.Oh, C.Shin, S.Jang, W.Woo, "ubi-UCAM 2.0: A Unified Context-aware Application Model for Ubiquitous Computing Environments ," UbiCNS, pp. 000-000, 2005. [14]  Joao  B.  dos  Santos  Jr,  Rudinei  Goularte, Gustavo  B.  Faria  and  Edson  dos  S.  Moreira, “Modeling  of  User  Interaction  in  Context-Aware Interactive  Television  Application  on  Distributed Environments”.   [15] Anind K. Dey, “Understanding and Using Context. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, Special issue on Situated Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing, 5(1), 2001.

  10. Thank You Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  11. Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  12. Related Work (contd…) CAMUS • Provides autonomous service agents which are aware of the context. • Adapt themselves to different situations. • The content recommendation service agent provides a method for easily locating interesting items. Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  13. Related Work (contd…) Ubi-UCAM • Unified context-aware application model. • Consists of • UbiSensor. • UbiService. • UbiSensors provide the preliminary context. • UbiService provides a context-aware movie player. Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  14. Related Work (contd…) Reconfigurable context-sensitive middleware (RCSM) • Sensors and application services are independent entities. • It also collects, analyzes, and interprets contextual information. • After processing, RCSM delivers the information to the application services. Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  15. Related Work (contd…) INTRIGUE (INteractive TouRist Information GUidE) • Tourist information server. • tailors the recommendation of attractions for tourists groups. • partitions users as subgroups having similar characteristics and preferences. • Computes average of preferences. Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  16. Related Work (contd…) INTRIGUE Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  17. Related Work (contd…) The Intelligent Room, MIT • Tracks multiple inhabitants in the room. • Voice based commands for interaction. • No mechanism for handling group preferences. Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  18. Methodology 1 Preemptive Role Based Conflict Resolution • Concept • Role based Priority • Father : 1 • Mother : 2 • Children : 3 • Limitations • Priorities are fixed, Lack Flexibility Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  19. Methodology 2 Preemptive Priority Based Conflict Resolution • Concept – SWF Demo • Implementation • Admin has the authority to assign priorities • Limitations • Displacing a user watching the TV may be disturbing at times! Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  20. Methodology 3 Non-Preemptive Priority Based Conflict Resolution • Concept • Implementation • Limitations • Higher priority user cannot exercise his full power. Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  21. Methodology 4 Time Slice Based Preemptive Priority Conflict Resolution • Concept • Strikes a balance between Preemption and Non- Preemption. • Implementation • Limitations Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  22. Methodology 5 Interactive Preemptive Priority Based Conflict Resolution • Concept • Manual Overriding possible. • Implementation • Limitations Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  23. Methodology 6 Democratic Group Preference Conflict Resolution • Concept – SWF demo • Mathematical Computations • Implementation • Limitations • All the users have the same priority. Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  24. Profile Editor for Group Methodologies Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  25. Methodology 6 Democratic Group Preference Conflict Resolution The User Preferences are represented as, • User j’s preferences = {UPj1, UPj2, UPj3} Where, • GP is Group Preference, • UP is User Preference, • i denotes the category of the preference, • j denotes the user. • GPi (Group Preference for the ith category), is the sum total of user preferences for user j in category i. Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  26. Methodology 7 Role and Age Factor based Group Preference Conflict Resolution • Concept • Mathematical Computations • Implementation • Limitations Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  27. Methodology 7 Role and Age Factor based Group Preference Conflict Resolution where, • GP is Group Preference, • UP is User Preference, • i denotes the category of the preference, • j denotes the user. • R f, j denotes the Role Factor of User j. • A f, j denotes the Age Factor of User j. • GPi (Group Preference for the ith category), is the sum total of product of user preferences for user j and his role factor plus the Age factor. Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  28. Methodology 7 Role Factor table Age factor A f = (Age * 20) / 100 where, - Af denotes the Age Factor. - Age: age of the user in years. Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  29. Back

  30. Methodology 1 Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  31. Methodology 2 Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  32. Methodology 6 Back Priority Based Conflict Resolution

  33. Methodology 7 Priority Based Conflict Resolution Back