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Construction of Japanese Patent Database and Preliminary Findings on Patenting Activities in Japan. Akira Goto and Kazuyuki Motohashi RCAST, University of Tokyo EPIP Conference, Milan, 24-25, February 2006. Outline. Introduction Methodology and Basic Features of Japanese Patent Database

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Construction of japanese patent database and preliminary findings on patenting activities in japan

Construction of Japanese Patent Database and Preliminary Findings on Patenting Activitiesin Japan

Akira Goto

and

Kazuyuki Motohashi

RCAST, University of Tokyo

EPIP Conference, Milan, 24-25, February 2006


Outline
Outline Findings on Patenting Activities

  • Introduction

  • Methodology and Basic Features of Japanese Patent Database

  • Comparing Japanese citation data with those of Europe and the U.S. Overview of innovation activities by Japanese Patent Database

  • Citation Analysis by Japanese Patent Database

  • Conclusion


1 introduction
1.Introduction Findings on Patenting Activities

  • “Nothing exists until it is measured”

    ----- Niels Bohr

    Difficulty in measuring knowledge despite the talk of “knowledge society”

    Patent as a source of information on technological knowledge

    Great contribution of NBER patent citation database to innovation research


  • Need for a patent database using JPO patents Findings on Patenting Activities

    IIP PATENT DATABASE

    IIP: Institute of Intellectual Property

    http://database.iip.or.jp/patentdb/index.html

    (only for Japanese)

    An English version will be available at

    http://www.iip.or.jp/


2 methodology and basic features of japanese patent database
2. Methodology and Basic Features of Japanese Patent Database

  • Original Data Source; JPO Seiri hyojunka Data

    (Literally translating,

    “Arranged and Standardized Data”,

    hereafter, JPO Patent Database)

  • It contains the information generated through acceptance of application to examination process by JPO.

  • About 50 boxes of half inch tape.



Patent application files 9 027 486records
①Patent application files (9,027,486records) innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.

  • Application number

  • Application date

  • Examination request date

  • Applicant number

  • Number of claims at patent application

  • Lead IPC code at patent application

  • Aggregated technology category


Aggregated technology category
Aggregated Technology Category innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.


Patent registration file 2 618 699records
②Patent registration file (2,618,699records) innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.

  • Application number

  • Registration number

  • Registration date

  • Rights expiration date

  • Rights holder number

  • Number of claims at patent registration

  • Lead IPC code at patent registration

  • Aggregated technology category


Applicant file 626 708 records
③Applicant file(626,708 records) innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.

  • Applicant number

  • Applicant name

  • Applicant type (individual, corporation or government)

  • Country and prefecture code

  • JPO applicant code


Rights holder file 204 622 records
④Rights holder file(204,622 records) innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.

  • Rights holder number

  • Rights holder name


Citation information file 5 318 225records
⑤Citation information file(5,318,225records innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.)

  • Citing patent application number

  • Cited patent application number

  • Citation type


3 overview of innovation in japan by iip patent database
3.Overview of innovation in Japan by IIP patent Database innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.

  • 9,027,486 applications, 4,427,840 requests for examinations, 2,594,044 grants from 1964 through 2003.

  • Information on patent right termination is also available.

  • Data truncation problem


Patent application by technology
Patent application by technology innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.


Patent application by applicant type
Patent application by applicant type innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.


Patent registration by technology
Patent registration by technology innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.


Number of claims by technology
Number of claims by technology innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.


Patent life length by applicant type
Patent Life Length by Applicant Type innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.


Patent life length by application date
Patent Life Length by Application Date innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.


3 citation in iip patent database
3. Citation in IIP patent Database innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.

  • Two types of information on citation---both are given by patent examiner, not inventor

    (1)as prior art to reject application: subject to change according to examination practices

    (2)In Patent Gazett, reference to previous patent is made occasionally. Notable previous related patents. Only for patents granted, and after 1985.


Patent counts with citation made
Patent counts with citation made innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.


4 comparing jp citation data with those of europe and us
4. Comparing JP Citation Data with those of Europe and US innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.

  • JP Citation data: (1) prior art for a reject application by examiner and (2) those in Patent Gazett (again by examiner’s citation)

  • EP Citation data: minimum number of important reference documents

  • US Citation data: applicant’s citations (but over 40% of citations are made by examiner, Alacer and Gittleman, 2004), citation inflation?


Correction of patent data biases by oecd patent family data
Correction of patent data biases by OECD patent family data innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.

JP-1

JP-101

Family A

JP-2

JP-102

Family AA

EP-1

EP-101

JP-4

JP-103

Family B

JP-5

Family BB

JP-104

US-1


Data innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.

JP Citation: IIP Patent Database

EP Citation: EP Citation Database

US Citation: NBER Patent Database + B. Hall Extension

OECD Patent Family: 1978-2002 Data


Overlapping citing cited pairs
Overlapping Citing Cited Pairs? innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.


What about citation lags
What about citation lags? innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.


Correlation of citation count
Correlation of citation count innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.

Backward citation count (citation made)

Forward citation count (citation received)


5 citation analysis
5. Citation Analysis innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.

  • Selecting granted patents from all citing and cited pairs to capture cumulative process of innovation

  • 5,318,225 -> 1,602,130 for 2,618,699 granted patents

  • Comparing patent counts, generality and originality index across applicant’s type and technology field


Share of patents with citing made and citation received
Share of patents with citing made and citation received innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.


Indicators for backward citation citation made
Indicators for backward citation innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark. (citation made)


Indicators for forward citation citation received
Indicators for forward citation innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.(citation received)


Descriptive regressions of patent indicators 1
Descriptive regressions of patent indicators (1) innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.


Descriptive regressions of patent indicators 2
Descriptive regressions of patent indicators (2) innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.

  • High citing patent counts:

    • printing, machine tools, non-organic chemistry, drug, organic molecule, dyes, metallurgy, textile, optics, communication technology

  • High cited patent counts:

    • printing, paper, drug, organic molecule, display and information storage

  • High generality index:

    • separating and mixing, organic molecule, metallurgy


6 conclusion
6. Conclusion innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.

  • Construction of IIP Patent Database: filling a hole of patent database initiative in the triad

  • Open up opportunities for further research of on innovation and further data developments: for example IIP patent data base can be linked with JPO’s Survey on Intellectual Property Activities

  • Citation data analysis

    • Substantial differences: not only by patent system (JP-EP vs US), but also home biases

    • On the other hand, substantial cross co-relation for citation received information (indicator of important patent for cumulative innovation)

    • Preliminary citation analysis conducted


Future works
Future works innovation research, using NBER database as benchmark.

  • Data cleaning of applications name

    • Using Japanese character makes things better

    • Standardized name and JPO applicant coded after 1992

    • International coordination: match to Derwent codes? Using patent family information

  • Adding other variables such as inventor information, post grant opposition etc.

  • Linkage with firm level data such as financial report data


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