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The American Civil War 1861-1865. Lincoln’s First Inauguration March 4, 1861. Confederates Took Fort Sumter April 4, 1861. Confederates Took Fort Sumter April 4, 1861. Lincoln Calls For Volunteers. April 14, 1861. Virginia Seceded April 17, 1861. Three More States Seceded.

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Presentation Transcript
three more states seceded
Three More States Seceded

Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina

West VA seceded from VA

Border States

Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky, and Delaware

Slave states that remained in the Union

resources of each side
Resources of Each Side

Northern

Southern

11 states

9 million people

4 million were slaves

Defending own soil

Superior Military Leadership

More accustomed to guns and horses

Cotton

  • 21 states
  • Over 21 million people
  • Superior manufacturing and food production
  • 2/3 of country’s railroad mileage
  • Superior Civilian Leadership
marching to manassas
Marching to Manassas
  • July 18, 1861 – 1st battle – Bull Run – (Manassas)
    • people from DC came in carriages and had picnics to watch the fight
slide11

Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)

Union – 30,000 troops Confederates 20,000

first battle of bull run
First Battle of Bull Run

First Manassas

July 21, 1861

Attempt to capture Richmond

Union met with resistance at Bull Run Creek

Union had initial advantage

Confederate forces led by Thomas Jackson turned the tide

Stonewall

Union Army forced to retreat back to Washington

stonewall jackson
Stonewall Jackson
  • General Thomas Jackson CSA – gets nickname “Stonewall”
    • His troops held their position while southern army retreated
    • Inspired Confederate soldiers to keep fighting
slide14

Rebel Yell

Southerners counter attacked with “rebel yell”

drove back Yanks

  • Union line broken and retreat
  • South did not chase
slide16

Effects of the First Battle of Bull Run

  • Taught north it would be a long fight
  • Lincoln call up 1 million man army
  • Southerners felt more confident
slide17

Effects of the First Battle of Bull Run

McClellan made General of the Northern Army

the anaconda plan
The Anaconda Plan

Three Pronged Union Strategy

Capture Richmond

Blockade the Confederacy

Divide the Confederacy

slide19

General McDowell

Fired after defeat at Bull Run

Union Generals

slide20

General McClellan

Replaces McDowell

Union Generals

slide21

Naval War

Union blockaded the South

As war continued blockade became more effective

slide26

First fight ever between iron ships

Marks the beginning of modern naval warfare

slide27

Eastern Front

South controlled Shenandoah Valley

peninsula campaign
Peninsula Campaign

McClellan (Union) led several campaigns to attack Richmond

Was very cautious with his plans

slide29

General Robert E Lee used JEB Stuart to lead cavalry to stop McClellan

Confederates win Seven Days Battle

slide30

Lee defeated Union Army at 2nd Battle of Bull Run

Puts Confederates close to Washington DC

slide32

Goals of Lee’s Invasion

  • Force Lincoln to talk peace
  • Farmers get to harvest food in VA
  • Show Europe South can win
        • South need Europe for military and financial support

Lee’s Invasion of North

slide33

Lee plans to attack Sharpsburg, MarylandNorth discovers Lee’s plan and launches a surprise attack against the Confederates

battle of antietam sharpsburg
Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg)
  • North and South fight all day
slide35
Antietam
    • One of the Bloodiest battles of the war
    • 23,000 killed or wounded
slide36
Antietam
    • One of the Bloodiest battles of the war
    • 23,000 killed or wounded

McClellan (Union) allows Lee and Confederates to escape following the battle

slide37

General McClellan

Fired after Antietam for not pursuing Lee

Union Generals

slide38

Union Generals

General Burnside

Replaces McClellan

slide39
Effects of Antietam

Europe does not ally with CSA

Lincoln originally fought war only to preserve the Union

After Antietam

Lincoln decides to issue Emancipation Proclamation

slide40

Emancipation Proclamation

Frees all slaves in REBELLING states on January 1, 1863

Old South will be destroyed and replaced with new values

slide41

Emancipation Proclamation

Why does Lincoln free slaves in South not the North?

slide42

Emancipation Proclamation

Why does Lincoln free slaves in South not the North?

  • Freeing slaves in South seen as military action
    • As Commander in Chief (head of military) Lincoln can take military actions
slide43

Emancipation Proclamation

Why does Lincoln free slaves in South not the North?

  • Freeing slaves in South seen as military action
    • As Commander in Chief (head of military) Lincoln can take military actions
  • Can’t free slaves in north because of Constitution
  • Government can’t take property without due process
    • Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri might secede
black americans join up
Black Americans Join Up
  • Used them for support work
  • 54th Massachusetts – Glory
  • Emancipation Proclamation also allows blacks into US Army
  • Fought under white commanders and had unequal pay and duties
black americans join up1
Black Americans Join Up
  • Used them for support work
  • 54th Massachusetts – Glory
  • Emancipation Proclamation also allows blacks into US Army
  • Fought under white commanders and had unequal pay and duties
black americans join up2
Black Americans Join Up
  • Used them for support work
  • 54th Massachusetts – Glory
  • Emancipation Proclamation also allows blacks into US Army
  • Fought under white commanders and had unequal pay and duties
slide48

Union Army based in Cairo Illinois

Mississippi River

Ohio River

slide49

Union Army based in Cairo Illinois

Union is able to get control over rivers that lead into South

war in the west
War in the West

General Grant

Western Commander US Army

war in the west1
War in the West

Fort Donelson

Fort Henry

Victories give US control over Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers

Gets US access to Deep South

slide52

Battle of Shiloh

52,000 Union Soldiers

41,000 Confederate Soldiers

slide53

Battle of Shiloh - Dead

13,000 Union Soldiers

11,000 Confederate Soldiers

  • General Johnston (CSA) killed – Beauregard takes over
  • Union wins on counter attack by Grant
slide54

Admiral Farragut (USA) takes New Orleans

Gives control of Mississippi River to Unionexcept for Vicksburg Mississippi

slide55

General McClellan

Union Generals

General Burnside

General Hooker

Fired after Antietam for not pursuing Lee

Fired after Fredericksburg for losing to Lee

Fired after Chancellorsville for losing to Lee

slide56

General McClellan

Union Generals

General Burnside

General Hooker

Fired after Antietam for not pursuing Lee

Fired after Fredericksburg for losing to Lee

General Meade given control of Union Army

Fired after Chancellorsville for losing to Lee

slide57

Summer 1863 Lee goes north again

    • --- Out of supplies
    • --- Wanted to force peace

Blue Ridge Mountains

slide59

Confederates attack Buford’s Cavalry at Cemetery Hill near Gettysburg

Heth

Buford

Pender

Buford holds off superior CSA forces until Union reinforcements arrive

slide60

Armies compete for control of high grounds

Little and Big Round Top become major objectives

slide61

Armies compete for control of high grounds

Little and Big Round Top become major objectives

slide62

Pickett’s Charge

15,000 Confederate soldiers attack Union positionsConfederates make it to Ridge, but are driven back

slide63

Gettysburg marks the “high water” point of the Confederacy

Gettysburg is the turning point of the Civil War

Confederates never go on the offensive again

slide64

Gettysburg marks the “high water” point of the Confederacy

Gettysburg is the turning point of the Civil War

Confederates never go on the offensive again

Meade does not pursue Lee

slide66

Gettysburg Address

Lincoln gives speech at dedication of a military cemetery in Gettysburg

States that the Union is fighting to save democracy for the World

slide67

Gettysburg Address

“It is … for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us … that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain --- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom --- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth”

battle of vicksburg
Battle of Vicksburg
  • Union wanted to divide South at Mississippi River
  • Union had total control except Vicksburg MS and New Orleans
battle of vicksburg1
Battle of Vicksburg
  • Ulysses Grant led Union attack against Vicksburg from river and land
battle of vicksburg2
Battle of Vicksburg
  • Grant wins and gets complete control of Mississippi for Union
slide71

Civil War Battle Hospital

  • 220,000 die from disease in North
    • Didn’t have antiseptics (anti germ drugs) or anesthetics (pain killers)
      • Doctors would perform
      • surgery without
      • anesthetics
women in the war
Women in the War
  • Women joined to cook and take care of men
  • Women passed as men to fight in the war
  • Women served as nurses
  • Worked farms and businesses at home
slide73

Clara Barton

Served as a nurse during war

Created aid society to support soldiers

slide74

Elizabeth Blackwell

Created Soldiers Aid Society

  • Inspected health conditions of hospitals in war